Birthdate: May 20, 1925
Birth Place: Salisbury, New Brunswick
Death Date: April 23, 2015
Year Inducted: 1985
Awards: O.C., The C.D. Howe Award, The Gordon McGregor Trophy, C.St.J., D.C.L.(Hon), LL.D (Hon)
"The unselfish dedication of his great leadership and administrative abilities in the service of his nation and of his company have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1985.
Claude Ivan Taylor, O.C., D.C.L.(Hon), LL.D.(Hon), was born in Salisbury, New Brunswick, on May 20, 1925, where he obtained his early education. He attended McGill University's Extension Department, graduating as a Registered Industrial Accountant in 1953.
Taylor joined Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA) as a reservations agent in Moncton in 1949. At that time, the airline had just added Canadian-built North Stars to its fleet of DC-3's and moved its headquarters from Winnipeg to Montreal. He moved to Montreal, Quebec, as a Clerk for the airline in 1951. A number of promotions followed, placing him in various administrative positions. On January 1, 1965, the airline had a new look and a new name: Air Canada. By 1973 Taylor was named Vice-President, Public Affairs.
In February 1976, Taylor was appointed . President and Chief Executive Officer and Director. He became Chairman of the Board in June 1984. In August of 1990 he assumed the additional duties of President and Chief Executive Officer. In February 1992, he reverted to his former position of Chairman of the Board.
Long an advocate of the privatization of Air Canada he was successful in persuading the Government of Canada to privatize the airline in two stages - 49% in 1987, followed by 100% privatization in 1988.
Taylor served on the Executive Committee of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and was President of IATA for the 1979-80 term. He was presented with the First Industry Service Award for his work in 1978 in developing the new IATA membership structure. He was the Founding Chairman of the International Aviation Management Training Institute and is today its Honorary Chairman. He continues to serve on a number of Boards and is Governor Emeritus of Concordia University. He was made an Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.) in 1986, and is a Commander in the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (C.St.J.). He held an Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law from the University of New Brunswick and an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from McMaster University.
Taylor received numerous awards; among them the Royal Canadian Air Force Gordon R. McGregor Trophy in 1980; the Human Relations Award from the Canadian Council of Christians and Jews; the B'nai Brith Canada Award of Merit; the Silver Wolf Award for Services of the Most Exceptional Character to Scouting; and the C.D. Howe Award for Leadership in Aeronautics and Space. In 1993 he was awarded the Salvation Army Order of Distinguished Service Cross. In 1996 the Western Canada Aviation Museum recognized him as a Pioneer in Canadian Aviation.
In 1993 he was named Chairman Emeritus of Air Canada and continued to be a member of the Board, the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee, and the Pension Investment Policy Committee until his death on April 23, 2015 at Montreal, Quebec.
Claude Ivan Taylor was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1985 at a ceremony held at Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: July 23, 1913
Birth Place: Wainwright, Alberta
Death Date: July 15, 2018
Year Inducted: 1997
"With innovative ability, resolution and courage, in the most arduous situations, he kept the early aircraft flying. His skills as an air engineer, and later as a manager, span the history of aviation from the earliest bush operations to the modern jet era, and are of significant benefit to transport aviation in Canada," - Induction citation, 1997
Harold (Rex) Terpening was born on July 23, 1913, in Wainwright, Alberta, and moved to the Fort McMurray area of northern Alberta at an early age. The educational facilities at that frontier village were meagre but fortunately a school program was soon offered.
Fort McMurray became the base for several early aviation companies and there were many opportunities to learn the skills required of a maintenance engineer. By working without pay, Terpening obtained ample experience on every type of maintenance and repair procedure that could be carried out in the field. Only part-time jobs existed and these he augmented by trapping, cordwood cutting, and working on the river boats. Thus he survived until he could qualify for his Air Engineer's Licence and obtain permanent employment with Canadian Airways Limited in 1935.
For the next several years Terpening flew as air engineer with many well known pilots throughout the Canadian Arctic. These were the beginning years for aviation in the north, with the equipment untried, the facilities primitive, and the terrain unmapped and largely uninhabited - a time of hardship and hazard for all.
In November of 1934, Terpening and Canadian Airways pilot Rudy Huess broke through the ice with a fully loaded aircraft. Extricating the passenger who was trapped between the load and the roof, Terpening forced open the cabin door and they made their escape.
In 1936, on a trip with Matt Berry, their aircraft was severely damaged during a desperate landing in fog and darkness at Fort Good Hope. Poor visibility caused them to collide with a pile of gas drums, breaking one ski, twisting the ski pedestal, bending the propeller and tearing out fuselage cross-members. Temporary repairs in order to ferry the plane to Fort McMurray required a week. Temperatures were below -60°F (-51°C).
Also in 1936, Terpening and Berry flew a Junkers to isolated Paulatuk, 400 miles east of Aklavik, to bring out Bishop Falaize and his party, marooned when their schooner was caught in early ice between Coppermine and Letty Harbour. To make matters worse for the small group, most of their food supply was lost to pillaging polar bears. After their arrival at Paulatuk, Terpening and Berry were storm-bound for ten days and were becoming increasingly short of fuel, food - and daylight! An attempt to leave Paulatuk on December 14 failed due to white-out conditions. Airborne once again on December 19, they survived a violent landing during another white-out, and the group of six adults and four children spent a bitterly cold night on the Barrens, huddled together in a make-shift shelter under the aircraft. They arrived at Aklavik the following day, December 20, with their fuel exhausted. Years later, Berry called this Paulatuk trip the most hazardous and difficult he had ever experienced.
In November of 1937, Terpening and Huess flew from Edmonton to Aklavik with a load of radio equipment urgently needed in the search for Russian trans-polar pilot Levanevsky and his crew. With the southern rivers still not frozen over, they loaded gasoline into the aircraft cabin, transferring this to the wing tanks in flight. With this added range they were able to reach a safe landing area, after 500 miles of poor visibility and icing conditions.
In 1938 Terpening, assisted by engineer Ted Bowles, was assigned to salvage a Noorduyn Norseman, CF-BAU, damaged near Yellowknife. They lived for five weeks in a tent which was set up to cover the front end of the aircraft, providing shelter while they carried out repairs in temperatures down to -50°F (-46°C).
Following a propeller inflicted injury in 1938, Terpening was transferred by Canadian Airways to Brandon, Manitoba, where he worked with Albert Hutt on developing the first Oil Dilution System. This involved injecting gasoline into the engine oil at shutdown, preventing it from congealing in the cold and making draining unnecessary. It allowed the engine to be re-started without the laborious and risky process of preheating both oil and engine. The system was installed in Junkers CF-AQW, which was then moved to Stevenson Field at Winnipeg, Manitoba, where Terpening carried out the cold weather starting procedures with Tommy Siers. Numerous equipment modifications followed, but success was finally achieved on February 21, 1939, with the first successful start of a diluted, cold-soaked engine. The system allowed the engine to start at temperatures down to -44°F (-42°C).
In early winter of 1939, Terpening was engineer on a rescue mission to Repulse Bay, located inside the Arctic Circle, 700 miles (1,126 km) north of Churchill, Manitoba. A young priest was suffering with severely frost-bitten hands after falling through thin ice on a hunting trip, and by the time a request for help was received, gangrene was beginning to destroy his right hand. Pilots W.A. Catton and A.J. Hollingsworth left Winnipeg on November 27 in a wheel-equipped Junkers, flying through low and ice-laden clouds to God's Lake, where they changed to skis. They pushed on to Churchill, Eskimo Point, Chesterfield, and finally, to Repulse Bay. Poor visibility and endless blizzards caused agonizing delays. They finally returned to Winnipeg on December 20, after completing the longest emergency flight in the history of the company.
With the start-up of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) in 1940, Terpcning was transferred to No. 2 AOS (Air Observers School) at Edmonton and was tasked with sorting out numerous initial problems of untrained personnel, unfamiliar aircraft and lack of spare parts. In 1941 he became Maintenance Superintendent of the newly-opened No. 7 AOS at Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, and soon developed his department to an award-winning level of efficiency. After one year, Terpening was recalled to airline activities with Canadian Airways at Edmonton. At this time, several small companies, including Canadian Airways, were brought together to form Canadian Pacific Air Lines (CPA), with maintenance under the direction of Albert Hurt.
During the early 1940's, Terpening was assigned to do aerial survey work for the Canol Pipeline Project being developed to bring crude oil from Norman Wells to Whitehorse. The United States Air Force used a twin-engined Douglas C-47 for this work, which proved to be an arduous task, as Terpening's camera position was unheated, there was little shelter from the slipstream and air temperatures were in the -20°F (-6°C) range.
From 1946 to 1950, he was stationed at Regina, Saskatchewan, as District Chief Mechanic, maintaining CPA's Lockheed Lodestar and Douglas DC-3 aircraft. He was later moved to a similar position in Vancouver, British Columbia, in charge of maintenance in the B.C. and Yukon districts, working on aircraft such as the Convair 240 and DC-4, the DC-6B and the Boeing 737.
This was a time of dramatic change for CPA, including a change in name: in 1968 CPA became known as CP Air. The airline dealt with rapid expansion, developing new routes, setting up new field stations, and hiring and training new personnel. There were added responsibilities for Terpening, and he became Manager, Line Maintenance, for the airline.
At the time of his retirement in 1978 he was responsible for maintenance activities for CP Air in western Canada, and for all of its international bases in Europe, Central and South America, the Pacific and the Orient. Rex & his wife Trudi live in Surrey, B.C.
Harold (Rex) Terpening was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1997 at a ceremony held at Calgary, Alberta. Rex and Trudie spent many years retired in the lower mainland of B.C. and Rex passed away on July 15, 2018 - just 8 days short of his 105th birthday.
“Bent Props and Blow Pots” - Rex Terpening (2003). ISBN 1-55017-287-5
Birthdate: November 24, 1904
Birth Place: Bowmanville, Ontario
Death Date: April 19, 1988
Year Inducted: 2006
Awards: O.B.E., C.M., FRCSA, FACS, MD
"His exceptional skills and radical new medical techniques, his total devotion to the treatment of airmen's burns and reconstruction of deformities, his understanding of the need to treat both the body and the spirit, giving his patients the will and ability to reintegrate into society, have benefited Canada and the world," - Induction citation, 2006
Albert Ross Tilley, OBE, CM, M.D., FRCSC, FACS, was born in Bowmanville, Ontario on November 24, 1904. He attended the University of Toronto and graduated in medicine in 1929. He trained in plastic surgery in Vienna, Edinburgh and New York. In 1935 he joined the RCAF Reserve and in 1939 was called to active service as a captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps.
He transferred to the RCAF Medical Branch and was sent overseas in 1941. With his experience in plastic surgery he was posted to Queen Victoria Hospital at East Grinstead, Sussex, in January 1942.
Here, from the early days of World War II, seriously burned airmen were being treated by the brilliant plastic surgeon, Dr. Archibald Mclndoe. Most of the burns involved the face and hands, suffered when the fuel tanks of aircraft exploded on impact. Mclndoe gathered the growing numbers of burn casualties into a former army hut behind the hospital, known as Ward three.
As the air war intensified, the number of Canadians being treated at Queen Victoria hospital increased. A 50-bed Canadian wing was established under the command of Wing Commander Dr. Ross Tilley.
The treatment of burn victims had not progressed much from the methods used in the First World War. The standard treatment was to apply gentian violet or tannic acid to dry the wound and prevent infection, often resulting in severe deformities and devastating loss of function. But that was about to change.
Tilley and Mclndoe discontinued the earlier barbaric practices. They pioneered innovative techniques such as the use of saline baths to ease the pain and facilitate cleansing of the burned areas. Tilley encouraged the dead, burned tissue to slough off, aided by soaking in saline, followed by the careful removal of the burn slough, a long and painful process. After many such debriding sessions, a thin sheet of skin was taken from a donor site, usually on the thighs, and the graft applied to the raw areas.
The typical "Airman's Burn" involved deep damage to the face and hands. A thin skin graft was only the first stage in the healing process, and areas such as noses, ears, eyelids and lips needed much more than just a thin skin covering. In some cases entire faces were rebuilt involving transfers of tissue from other parts of the body.
Dr. Tilley was more than a skilled surgeon. He knew that reconstruction of the spirit was as important as rebuilding the bodies of his patients. He excelled in dealing with the extreme psychological impact these young men suffered. They had been transformed in one fiery instant from handsome, dashing heroes into pain-wracked, disfigured shadows of their former selves, despairing for their futures. Their morale was of prime importance in the healing process.
Tilley and Mclndoe found ways to cut through any red tape seen as obstacles to their patients' recovery. Patients' rank was disregarded and all were allowed to wear their service uniform. Thus they remained fighting men in their own eyes and in the eyes of others. Ward 3 served as their mess, where beer and sherry were often on hand to provide some relief from their suffering.
Since many of the innovative treatments were still in the experimental stage, these courageous young men considered themselves to be guinea pigs, a name they proudly adopted. In 1941 they formalized themselves into a Guinea Pig Club, and, in self-mocking humour, they elected as secretary one who could not use his hands to take notes, and as treasurer one who was in a wheelchair and not able to run off with the funds! Life had to be worth living again.
Dr. Tilley was a fervent advocate for the airmen in his care. His approach to his Guinea Pig patients was firm, yet gentle, and he was in many ways a father figure, confidant and advisor to them - always there to help with any aspect of their lives. They affectionately referred to him as 'Wingco'.
Patients were taken out to the local community of East Grinstead as soon as they could stand or navigate in some way. The people of this small town quickly accepted them, and by treating them as local lads, helped them adapt to the normal activities of life. They became familiar sights around the town and many were invited home, to the cinema, or to a dance, and some met and married local girls.
This attitude fostered earlier healing of mind as well as body and these patients never lost hope. Those who were physically capable returned to active service much more quickly and some went on to distinguished flying careers. Moreover, Dr. Tilley's reputation became known throughout the service; active aircrew knew that in the event of a burn injury they would have the best possible treatment.
Of the Guinea Pig Club's 649 members, 176 were Canadians. After the war, a Canadian chapter was formed with Dr. Tilley as its President. The Club sustained many Air Force veterans through difficult times as they returned to civilian life. It continues to flourish as a classic example of what is now called group therapy.
At the end of the war Dr. Tilley, by then Group Captain, returned to Canada, with knowledge and experience unequaled by more than a handful of plastic surgeons anywhere in the world. He practiced at the Wellesley and Sunnybrook Hospitals in Toronto and taught courses in plastic surgery at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.
He married Jean Russell in 1952, with whom he celebrated 36 years of marriage. He retired in 1980, but continued to hold burn clinics until 1983.
In 1944 Tilley was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire, and in 1981 was appointed Member of the Order of Canada. He was a Fellow of both the Royal College of Surgeons of Canada and the American College of Surgeons. He was one of the twelve founding members of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons and was the society's eighth president.
Dr. Tilley's life and achievements are commemorated by a number of lasting tributes. The Ross Tilley Burn Centre was establishment in 1984, first at Wellesley Hospital and then at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. The Ross Tilley Foundation provides a scholarship to be awarded to exceptional plastic surgery graduates, and the Ross Tilley Public School was opened in 1996 in his home town of Bowmanville.
Dr. Tilley died in Toronto on April 19, 1988 and is remembered with reverence and great affection by his remaining Guinea Pigs and colleagues.
A. Ross Tilley was inducted into Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame at ceremonies held in Montreal on May 27, 2006.
Birthdate: September 26, 1900
Birth Place: Willenhall, Staffordshire, England
Death Date: October 14, 1973
Year Inducted: 1974
"His consummate skills with aircraft, learned from childhood and applied with invention and determination, despite adversity, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Samuel Anthony (Sammy) Tomlinson was born on September 26, 1900, in Willenhall, England, and was educated at Birmingham. At the outbreak of World War I, at age 14, he was apprenticed to the Birmingham Mint as a machinist. Two years later he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) as a Boy Airman and was posted to the RFC station at South Farnborough, where he received his initial air engineer's training and his early flight experience.
In 1917 he was ordered to front line service in France to assemble and repair fighter aircraft and to assist in test-flying evaluations. At war's end he transferred to the Royal Naval Air Station, Martlesham Heath, to work as an engineer on the latest experimental aircraft and there he flew with the foremost British test pilots.
Tomlinson was discharged in 1922 and became associated as an engine expert with boat designer Gar Wood at Grosse Isle, Michigan. He came to Canada in 1924, and joined the Ontario Provincial Air Service (OPAS) at Sudbury, Ontario, as an Air Engineer on flying boats. He then became a founding partner of Patricia Airways and Exploration Company, with H.A. 'Doc' Oaks, serving the Woman Lake and Red Lake areas, carrying supplies, passengers and mail.
When James A. Richardson founded Western Canada Airways in 1926 at Hudson, Ontario, Tomlinson was hired as Chief Mechanic, first at Hudson and then at Sioux Lookout, Ontario, until 1929, when he assumed the same position with the company's prairie air mail division. He served at Winnipeg, Moose Jaw, Edmonton, and Fort McMurray, and three years later was transferred to Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba.
At the outbreak of World War II, Tomlinson joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and served during the Battle of Britain with No. 2 Canadian Fighter Squadron in England. In 1943 his expertise was requested by No. 8 Repair Depot, RCAF, Winnipeg, where he commanded the engine test bench and served on the crash investigation board. He was discharged in 1945 with the rank of Warrant Officer First Class.
During his wartime service, Canadian Pacific Airlines (CPA) had absorbed his former company and he was named Chief Mechanic of the new line at Lac du Bonnet, but left two years later to take charge of mechanics for Lamb Airways at Kenora, Ontario. In 1951 he returned to CPA as Chief Mechanic of their Lincoln Park maintenance depot, Canadian Pacific Airlines (Repairs) Ltd., at Calgary, Alberta. He resigned in 1964 to join Austin Airways at Sudbury, Ontario, and two years later retired from aviation.
During a dedicated career that spanned a half-century, Tomlinson maintained the engines and aircraft for many of Canada's early bush pilots, flying with them on many historic flights. He died on October 14, 1973, in Calgary, Alberta.
Samuel Anthony (Sammy) Tomlinson was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held at Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: May 21, 1896
Birth Place: St. Keverne, Cornwall, England
Death Date: February 28, 1985
Year Inducted: 1974
"The application of his superlative skills as a flight instructor to two generations of Canadians for nearly a half century, despite adversity, has been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Leonard John (Len) Tripp was born in St. Keverne, Cornwall, England, on May 21, 1896, where he was educated. At the outbreak of World War 1, he enlisted in the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Regiment, and was ordered to combat in France in 1915. The following year he was granted a commission for services in the field. He was wounded in 1916 and sent to hospital in England, where, on recovery he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) for pilot training.
Tripp learned to fly at Hounslow, England, flying an Avro 504K. He was posted back to France after graduation, as an RE-8 pilot with No. 6 Squadron. He transferred to No. 48 Squadron where he flew Bristol fighters with H.A. 'Doc' Oaks. Tripp was shot down and crashed in what was known as 'No Man's Land'. He escaped to the Allied lines after two days and was hospitalized. On recovery he was assigned to flight instruction duties at Hounslow, England, until the war ended in 1918. He accepted a short term commission with the Royal Air Force (RAF) as an instructor. In 1923 he left the service and immigrated to Canada.
In 1924 Tripp was employed by the Ontario government's Forest Air Service at Sudbury and Sioux Lookout piloting Curtiss HS-2L flying boats. In 1926 he left to help found the Jack V. Elliot Flying School at Hamilton, Ontario. He remained there as Chief Instructor until 1929, when he moved to St. Catharines to found that city's flying club.
Tripp's outstanding skills as a flight instructor were recognized by Leavens Brothers Air Services, which hired him in 1936 as instructor at Barker Field, Toronto, Ontario. At the outbreak of World War II, he became Chief Instructor and General Manager. He administered that firm's contract to train pilots for the Elementary Flying Training School, a program for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). At this time he had instructed more students to licence standards than any other pilot in Canada.
During 1944 he opened his own flying training school at Barker Field at Toronto and remained the dean of Canadian flight instructors until his retirement from active flying in 1962. He then joined Legatt Aircraft at Buttonville, Ontario, in sales and service until he retired in 1968. He died at Newcastle, Ontario, on February 28, 1985.
Leonard John (Len) Tripp was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held at Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: April 17, 1891
Birth Place: Johannesburg, South Africa
Death Date: October 12, 1956
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: M.C.*, the McKee Trophy
"His pioneer flights to establish an airmail service to and from trans-Atlantic Ocean liners and his aerial survey work in designing initial flight routes for Trans-Canada Airlines, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
John Henry 'Tuddy' Tudhope, M.C.*, was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, on April 17, 1891. He was educated there at St. John's College, and at Tonbridge, Kent, England, where he completed his schooling before returning to South Africa as an engineer in the family-run diamond mine and to oversee the family farm.
At the outbreak of World War I, Tudhope enlisted in the British Army as a trooper to serve in German South West Africa. In 1917 he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC), and earned his pilot's wings. He flew as a fighter pilot with No. 40 Squadron, RFC, and was awarded the Military Cross (M.C.) and Bar for destroying 15 enemy aircraft in combat. At war's end he retired from the Royal Air Force (RAF) with the rank of Major and immigrated to Canada to farm at Lumby, near Vernon, British Columbia.
In 1920 Tudhope joined the Canadian Air Force (CAF) and served as a flying instructor at Camp Borden, Ontario.
In 1923, he was promoted to Squadron Leader and given command of the Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Air Station, followed by command of the Vancouver, British Columbia Air Station when the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) was formed in 1924.
At Air Headquarters at Ottawa, Ontario, in 1927, he became Superintendent of Airways with the Department of National Defence. One of his first tasks was to make preliminary flights for the development of an airmail service. One plan was to speed the delivery of mail coming from, or going to, Europe by having aircraft connect with trans-Atlantic Ocean liners docking at Rimouski, Quebec, to transfer mail to and from inland areas of Canada. Tudhope made the first experimental flight in September 1927, using a Vickers Vanessa seaplane, and although a storm damaged his aircraft on this trip, he went on to make many flights to meet incoming and outgoing steamships.
In 1928 plans were made under the Controller of Civil Aviation, J.A. Wilson, for the survey and construction of airports across Canada for a trans-Canada airway. Many of the larger centres across Canada already had landing strips, developed when the government decided to assist the flying clubs in 1927. Landing strips were needed between these airports. Selection of sites for western Canada was done by A.D. 'Dan' McLean, while selection of sites from Winnipeg to Halifax was done by Tudhope and others. To accomplish the task of charting the most suitable routes, they travelled by air, rail and on foot. The Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for 1930 was awarded to Tudhope for conducting the early, experimental airmail flights from Rimouski, Quebec, and for his supervision of the prairie airmail service in 1930.
In October 1931, Tudhope became Inspector of Airways, and continued the task of selecting sites for aerodromes. He was seconded from the RCAF in November, 1936 to continue serving civil aviation under the newly formed Department of Transport (DOT). In 1937 he was in charge of the calibration of radio ranges from Winnipeg to Vancouver in preparation for the trans-Canada air services.
Tudhope piloted the Department of Transport's Lockheed 12A Electra in which government officials, including the Rt. Hon. C.D. Howe, made the first pre-inaugural inspection flight over the route Trans-Canada Airlines would use from Montreal to Vancouver. This flight, on July 30, 1937, was known as the "Dawn to Dusk" flight.
He retired from the RCAF in 1938, and became Vice-President of Canadian Aviation Insurance Managers Limited. In 1943 he became General Manager of Operations for TCA. Five years later he was appointed the first Civil Air and Communications Attache to the High Commissioner at London, England. Tudhope died there on October 12, 1956, and his ashes were scattered over the Rocky Mountains from the same aircraft he had commanded in 1937 on the TCA inspection flight. The ceremony was conducted jointly by the RCAF and the Department of Transport.
John Henry 'Tuddy' Tudhope was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: October 16, 1870
Birth Place: St. John, New Brunswick
Death Date: November 26, 1954
Year Inducted: 1977
Awards: D.Sc.(Hon), FRAS, FRMS, FCAI
"The patient application of his aeronautical theses to a number of problems unique to flight, and more especially his invention of the successful variable pitch propeller, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation," - Induction citation, 1977
Wallace Rupert Turnbull, M.E., D.Sc. (Hon), was born in Saint John, New Brunswick, on October 16, 1870. After graduating with a degree in mechanical engineering (M.E.) from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, in 1893, he undertook post graduate work in physics at the University of Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany. After a short period with General Electric Company, New Jersey, he returned to his home at Rothesay, New Brunswick. There he established his own research laboratory and set up his own company as a consulting engineer.
Turnbull became interested in problems related to heavier-than-air flight, and in 1902 constructed Canada's first wind tunnel to investigate the properties of airfoils. During the next decade he continued researching the longitudinal stability of aircraft and investigated several forms and curvatures of airfoils with respect to lift and drag. His findings, which proved to be of high scientific value, were published in aeronautical journals in the United States and Great Britain.
Turnbull found that only meagre scientific data was available on the efficiency of the propeller. After extensive experimentation with propeller diameter and pitch coefficient he published an important paper titled "The Efficiency of Aerial Propellers" in the Scientific American Supplement, April 3, 1909. He realized that to operate efficiently under different conditions of flight—take-off, climb, cruise, etc., - the characteristics of the propeller must be varied, and that the only characteristic which could be adjusted during flight was the pitch.
During World War I, he went to England to offer assistance to aircraft manufacturers, and designed propellers for Sage seaplanes, and a Short 184 seaplane, which attained an altitude record of 13,000 feet (3,960 m) on June 9, 1917. At this time he began to work on a mechanism which would allow the pilot to control the pitch during flight, like changing gears on a car, so that the pitch could be set at different angles for take-off and landing, and for level flight.
At war's end, Turnbull returned to Rothesay and continued work on the design of a variable pitch propeller for which he gained a patent in 1922. The propeller itself was made by Canadian Vickers Limited and fitted to a 130 hp Clerget engine on an Avro 504K. The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) conducted the first test flights at Camp Borden and the Turnbull variable pitch propeller proved highly successful. However, the Canadian government refused to provide assistance beyond the testing stage because the project would then be classified as commercial. The patent rights were sold two years later and Turnbull's design became the Curtiss-Wright electric propeller, of which many thousands were manufactured during and beyond World War II.
Turnbull was elected a member of the research committee of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). His interests extended into many fields, such as hydroplanes, a torpedo screen, bomb sights, and harnessing tidal power, but his systematic approach to aeronautical research was regarded by many as his greatest and most significant contribution. In recognition of his endeavors, the University of New Brunswick conferred upon him an Honourary Doctor of Science degree in 1942.
To add to his already formidable reputation as a designer-inventor, he was awarded the bronze medal of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain along with an Associate Fellowship, and he was named a Fellow in both the Royal Aeronautical and the Royal Meteorological Societies. The Canadian Aeronautical Institute named him an Honorary Fellow in 1942 and in 1955 the annual W. Rupert Turnbull Lectures were established. The St. John airport, Turnbull Field, is named in his honour. The original propeller is displayed at the National Aviation Museum at Rockcliffe, Ottawa. He died in Saint John, New Brunswick, on November 26, 1954.
Wallace Rupert Turnbull was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1977 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: September 3, 1913
Birth Place: Devon, England
Death Date: July 23, 1983
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: D.S.O., D.F.C.*, C.D.*, Medal of Honour (Czechoslovakia), Medal of Valour (Czechoslovakia)
"His record can only be matched by those airmen of high endeavor and professional calling, who have devoted their lives and skills to the benefit of the free world, despite adversity, and whose contributions have substantially benefited Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Percival Stanley (Stan) Turner, D.S.O., D.F.C.*, C.D.*, was born in Devon, England, on September 3, 1913. His family immigrated to Collingwood, Ontario. He was educated there and at the University of Toronto. He joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Auxiliary Squadron in 1936, and two years later went to England to join the Royal Air Force (RAF), where he received his wings as a commissioned fighter pilot.
At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Turner was posted to No. 219 Squadron, flying Bristol Blenheim fighter-bombers on night operations, and Hawker Hurricane fighters on night U-boat patrols over the Irish Sea. In 1940 he served with NO. 242 All-Canadian Squadron, then volunteered for duty in France with No. 616 Squadron until that country's capitulation to German forces in 1940. As part of 616 Squadron he covered all phases of the Dunkirk operation as a fighter pilot, including the withdrawal of Allied troops. His squadron returned to England and came under the command and inspiration of Douglas Bader, the RAF's legendary legless pilot. Turner distinguished himself during the Battle of Britain.
Turner was promoted to Squadron Leader and given command of No. 145 Squadron at Tangmere in 1941. This unit was equipped with cannon-armed Spitfires for high-altitude bomber escort missions and fighter sweeps into France. R.A. Munro served under him there and later, when the squadron moved to Yorkshire as fighter protection for North Sea convoys. He became Senior Training Officer of No. 82 Group, in Northern Ireland, followed by appointment in 1941 to lead No. 411 Squadron.
Turner was then given command of No. 249 Squadron on the Island of Malta, and when that Allied stronghold came under enemy siege, he was named leader in 1942 of the Malta fighter wing. He was shot down in combat in 1942 but continued to command Malta's air operations during his convalescence. He initiated night bombing attacks with Hawker Hurricane fighters on enemy targets in Sicily.
When the siege was lifted, he was transferred to Egypt and the Desert Air Force which Raymond Collishaw had originated. From there he was posted to sea duty aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Arethusa, and led his sea-borne fighters on the ill-fated attack on Tobruk in June 1942. HMS Arethusa was sunk during this operation and he was ordered to HMS Orion on convoy duty into Malta. When he took command of No. 134 Squadron in the Western Desert, he led anti-tank Hurricane fighters against enemy armour, during which operations he survived a major crash. He was ordered to No. 417 Squadron in 1943 for the invasion of Italy and Sicily, and promoted to Wing Commander and leader of No. 244 Wing of the Desert Air Force in Italy. He continued to show outstanding leadership abilities, resulting in destruction of enemy aircraft and ground equipment. When Italy surrendered in 1943, he took command of No. 127 Wing, RCAF, in Europe, where he led 2,000 personnel and 72 fighter aircraft through France and Germany.
In 1946 Turner transferred to the RCAF and returned to Canada. After a tour of duty at the Royal Military College, he was appointed to command No. 20 Tactical Wing at Rivers, Manitoba. Postings followed as Command Senior Organization Staff Officer of the Northwest Air Command, and head of the Joint Air Training School. In 1951, while serving in Chatham, New Brunswick, he was named aide-de-camp to the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick.
Turner was appointed to the Canadian Embassy in Russia in 1954 as Senior Military Air Attache with the rank of Group Captain. Three years later he returned to command the RCAF station at Lachine, Quebec. Following a systems management course in the United States in 1960, he was transferred to Air Defence Command as Administrative Project Chief for the construction of a new radar chain, which was completed in 1963. He also served as a Canadian officer with the United States Air Force Electronics Division during the period of construction of the ballistic missile warning system.
In 1963 he retired from the service to become a sales manager for a Montreal investment firm. He served as a senior executive of Expo '67 and 'Man and His World' at Montreal, Quebec, for four years. Turner died in Ottawa, Ontario on July 23, 1983.
Percival Stanley (Stan) Turner was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.