Birthdate: August 22, 1922
Birth Place: Ithaca, New York
Death Date: February 20, 1975
Year Inducted: 2019
Awards: DFC, The McKee Trophy
An American in the Royal Canadian Air Force, attached to the Royal Air Force as a fighter pilot, David Fairbanks received the Distinguished Flying Cross three times. Post-war he served de Havilland Canada in promotion and development of the company’s Dash 7 airliner and other Short Takeoff and Landing aircraft.
Born in the United States at Ithaca, New York, on August 22, 1922, David Charles Fairbanks was the son of his mother, Helen, and his father, Professor Frank Fairbanks of Cornell University, who died of injuries received in an automobile accident in 1939. David had one brother, Thaddeus, and a sister, Caroline. At age 18, after graduating from Ithaca High School in 1940, David convinced his widowed mother to give him a letter of permission to join the Royal Canadian Air Force.
At that time, the United States had not yet entered into combat in the Second World War. David Fairbanks thus became an American in a Canadian air force uniform when he enlisted with the RCAF at Hamilton, Ontario in February 1941. By December of 1941, over 6,000 Americans had enlisted in the RCAF. With the entry of the United States into the war in 1942, some 3,800 Americans eventually transferred back to the military in the U.S.
At No. 1 Manning Depot in Toronto, David was selected for flying training and on July 1, 1941, he was posted to No. 3 Initial Training School of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Then at No. 21 Elementary Flying Training School at Chatham, New Brunswick, he learned to fly in Fleet Finch biplanes. He received his pilot’s wings on November 21, 1941, at No. 9 Service Flying Training School (SFTS) at Summerside, Prince Edward Island.
With his skill as a pilot, David qualified as a flying instructor at Central Flying School at Trenton, Ontario, and then instructed at No. 13 SFTS in St. Hubert, Québec until April 1943. Next, he was shipped to England, attached to the Royal Air Force and promoted from Flying Officer to Flight Lieutenant. His first posting was to 501 Squadron RAF to fly Spitfires and his skill as a fighter pilot was soon evident – on June 9, 1944 he destroyed a German Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter aircraft and damaged another. During the rest of his combat experience, all his other victories were scored while flying a Hawker Tempest.
After transferring to 274 Squadron RAF, formed originally in 1918 as a patrol and bomber squadron, while flying a Tempest on August 29, 1944, Fairbanks destroyed an enemy jet-powered V-1 flying bomb, known as a buzz bomb, developed by Germany for attacks on London. It was the first of two that he shot down. By late 1944, F/L Fairbanks had completed a large number of operational flights, but did not remain unscathed himself. On November 19, while attacking a locomotive, his Tempest was hit by ground fire, which ignited a fuel tank. Aircraft fabric was burned on the fuselage and tail, causing the Tempest to be completely turned over. Fairbanks righted the aircraft at low altitude and successfully returned to home base in Belgium, landing and escaping from the badly damaged aircraft. For those actions, he was awarded his first Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC). In December 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge, David Fairbanks shot down two more 109s and damaged another.
In January 1945 during a short posting to 3 Squadron RAF, Fairbanks shot down five more aircraft, including 109s, a Focke-Wulf FW 190 fighter and a Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft, as well as damaging a twin-engine Junkers Ju 88 multi-role combat aircraft. For his outstanding performance, F/L Fairbanks received his second DFC for which the citation stated, “His keenness and determination have set a high example to all.”
In 1945 David Fairbanks was promoted to Squadron Leader and returned to 274 Squadron, for which he assumed command on February 9. Just two days later he distinguished himself again by shooting down a twin-engine Arado 234b, the world’s first jet bomber. Three days later, he damaged a Messerschmitt 262 twin-engine jet fighter. On February 28, S/L Fairbanks led his flight of six Tempests into combat with FW 190s and Bf 109s, when he was shot down himself by a 190. With difficulty, he was able to open the canopy and bail out, surviving the misadventure. Captured, he was moved a week later to a prisoner of war camp where he remained until April 1945, when he was liberated by Allied troops and transferred back to the United Kingdom.
Repatriated to Canada in June 1945, on July 7 David Fairbanks was awarded the DFC for the third time. By war’s end he had destroyed 15 enemy aircraft, at one time shooting down six within a two-week period. The citation for this third DFC included the statement, “By the excellent example he has set, his initiative and fine leadership, this officer has inspired the other members of his squadron and all pilots with whom he has come in contact.” Fairbanks was 22 years old.
Following the war, back home at Ithaca, New York, he earned a degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1950 from Cornell University. He then returned to Canada, joining the Dominion Bridge Company in Montréal as an engineer, where he worked on the city’s Champlain Bridge project for one year. While in Montréal he joined RCAF Auxiliary Squadron 401, flying Harvards and Canadair Silver Star CT-33 and de Havilland Vampire jets. Then while working with Sperry Gyroscope Company of Canada as a Technical Representative, he was transferred to the United Kingdom. to represent the company flying Gloster Meteors and F-86 Sabre jet aircraft for 504 RAF Auxiliary Squadron.
David returned to Canada in 1955, joining de Havilland Aircraft of Canada (DHC) as a test pilot. With chief test pilot George Neal, on July 30, 1958, they made the first flight of de Havilland’s DHC-4 Caribou. (George Neal was inducted as a Member of Canada’s Aviation Hall of Fame in 1995). In 1960, David Fairbanks was appointed Manager of Flight Operations for DHC, a post he held for 20 years. He became well known in the aviation industry as a skilled demonstration pilot and promoter of de Havilland’s STOL (Short Takeoff and Landing) aircraft. During that period he led demonstrations of de Havilland’s Beaver, Twin Otter, Caribou and Buffalo aircraft at countries around the world.
A staunch advocate of STOL aircraft, Fairbanks contributed to American support of such aircraft, leading to conditions that would permit the certification of airliners with STOL capabilities. The groundswell of interest in STOL and the potential market for aircraft capable of operating in confined urban spaces convinced de Havilland’s government shareholder to proceed with the development of the world’s first certificated STOL airliner, de Havilland’s DHC-7, known as the Dash 7, powered by four turboprop engines. It first flew in 1975 and remained in production until 1988, when de Havilland Canada was purchased by Boeing, then later sold to Bombardier.
Following the roll-out of the Dash 7 on February 5, 1975, to public acclaim at Toronto’s Downsview airport, David Fairbanks returned to home in Toronto, where he received word from his doctor to report immediately to a hospital. David was told he had suffered a heart attack. Loved and admired by men with whom he flew, two weeks later on February 20, 1975, this war hero and captain of industry, an American who had become a Canadian citizen, died at the age of 52, survived by his second wife, Betty.
Fairbanks had expressed in his will a desire “to explore the ocean deep.” His colleagues in Flight Operations at de Havilland arranged fabrication of a lead cylinder to serve as an urn for Fairbanks’ ashes. Weeks later, after a brief ceremony on the Downsview ramp, DHC pilot George Northrop, while delivering a new Twin Otter to an African customer, took the urn on board and dropped it into the Atlantic Ocean between Gander, Newfoundland, and Santa Maria in the Azores.
Birthdate: September 5, 1913
Birth Place: Vermillion, Alberta
Death Date: May 22, 1971
Year Inducted: 1992
Awards: The Yorath Trophy, RCFCA Gold Medal
His dedication to the flight and safety training of young pilots and the growth of the Edmonton Flying Club was of great benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1992
Maurice D'Arcy Alien Fallow was born on September 5, 1913, in Vermilion, Alberta. In 1937 he received his Private Pilot's Licence under the direction of Maurice Moss Burbidge at the Edmonton and Northern Alberta Aero Club.
In 1942 he joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). When he had completed his training, he became an instructor and served at Nos. 9, 16, and 6 Service Flying training Schools.
At the end of the war in 1945, Fallow returned to Edmonton, Alberta, and founded Western Aero Motive which offered flying training and aircraft maintenance. The next year he established a flying school at Vermilion and barnstormed the country fair circuit in eastern Alberta.
In 1948 Fallow joined the Edmonton Flying Club as its Secretary-Manager, and served the club with great distinction until his death in 1971. During this period he was awarded the Yorath Trophy eight times in the period from 1950 to 1958. The Yorath Trophy was originated and sponsored by Dennis K. Yorath while he was President of the Royal Canadian Flying Clubs Association (RCFCA) during 1947 - 1949. Its purpose was to stimulate, at the management level, active competition among flying clubs across Canada. The trophy was presented annually by the RCFCA to the Flying Club Manager who best utilized the facilities of his club.
As proof of Fallow's administrative ability, the Edmonton Flying Club's membership grew from 154 to 1,500 members, becoming the largest flying club in Canada. He won the RCFCA Best Club Bulletin Shield ten times in the period from 1950 - 1967 for the Edmonton Flying Club's 'Slipstream' publication, judged most effective in communicating with club membership.
As well as excelling in the field of administration, Fallow remained a top flight instructor, setting the standards for the training of Air Cadets on scholarships from the Air Cadet League of Canada (Belt of Orion 1989). He was also capable of leading prospective pilots from initial training to Airline Transport Ratings. He maintained his Senior Commercial Pilot's Licence up to the time of his death.
In 1951 Fallow became the first Canadian to be elected President of the International Northwest Aviation Council (INAC). His promotion of flight training and safety was recognized when he was awarded the RCFCA Gold Medal in 1959.
Fallow died suddenly in Edmonton on May 22, 1971. In 1975 he was posthumously named one of the first recipients of INAC's Roll of Honour Award for his promotion of the field of aviation, and particularly the public's understanding and acceptance of aviation's value to the community.
Maurice D'Arcy Alien Fallow was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1992 at a ceremony held in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
Birthdate: March 19, 1909
Birth Place: Ottawa, Ontario
Death Date: April 3, 1981
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: D.S.O.**, D.F.C.. Croix de Guerre with Palm (France), Chevalier of the Legion of Honour (France).
"His exceptional abilities as an airman and wartime operations commander set the highest standard of leadership and dedication to purpose and caused those whom he led to excel themselves, resulting in outstanding contributions to Canadian aviation." - induction citation, 1974
John Emilius (Johnny) Fauquier, D.S.O.**, D.F.C., was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on March 19, 1909, educated at Ashbury College and then entered the investment business in Montreal, Quebec, where he joined a local flying club. After earning his Commercial Pilot's Licence he formed Commercial Airways at Noranda, Quebec. Prior to World War II, he had flown some 3,000 hours as pilot-in-command on bush operations.
Fauquier joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in 1939 as a Flight Lieutenant, completed an advanced course and served until mid-1941 instructing a group of British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) instructors. After a short period in England at a glider and paratrooper training centre, he was posted to 405 Squadron and by February, 1942 had been promoted to Wing Commander and given command of the squadron. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (D.F.C.) for gallantry.
Shortly afterwards, Fauquier was seconded from operations to the RCAF's Overseas Headquarters for staff duties. He then served a short term with No. 6 Bomber Group, RCAF, before once again taking command of 405 Squadron. In 1943 he was promoted to Group Captain for his leadership of that squadron, which had become a member of 8 Pathfinder Group.
On the night of August 17, 1943, Fauquier led an epic raid on the German rocket base at Peenemunde on the Baltic coast. He acted as deputy master bomber, making 17 passes over the target, guiding the waves of bombers to it. The base was destroyed, which delayed the use of these rockets by a full year. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) with the following citation: "This officer is a first-class leader whose skillful and courageous example has proved most inspiring. His sterling qualities were well illustrated during an operation against Peenemunde one night in August and again a few nights later in an attack on Berlin. Group Captain Fauquier has displayed boundless energy and great drive and has contributed, in large measure, to the high standard of operational
efficiency of the squadron he commands."
During January 1944, Fauquier completed his second tour of operations with 405 Squadron after flying 38 sorties. He was then awarded a Bar to his D.S.O. with the accompanying citation: "This officer has commanded the squadron with notable success during the past nine months. He has frequently taken part in sorties against distant and well-defended targets, including several attacks on the German capital. He is a forceful and gallant leader whose outstanding ability and unswerving devotion to duty have been reflected in the fine operational work performed by the whole squadron. Group Captain Fauquier has set an example of the highest order."
In June 1944, after promotion to Air Commodore, which rank precluded his flying on operations, Fauquier voluntarily reverted to Group Captain so that he might begin a third tour of operations. This time he served as Commanding Officer of 617 (Dambuster) Squadron, Royal Air Force, which he led from December 1944. Subsequently he led them on raids against submarine pens, viaducts and the last of the German battleships, the Tirpitz. Under his command 617 Squadron dropped the first 22,000 pound (9,980 kg) 'Grand Slam' bombs from Lancaster bombers. To conserve the bombs, Fauquier developed the tactic of flying low near the target while the squadron released several bombs. As soon as the target was hit, he signaled the remaining bombers to return to base, with their bomb loads intact.
At the end of the war in Europe, Fauquier was awarded a second Bar to his D.S.O., the equivalent of three D.S.O.'s. He was the only Canadian officer to be so decorated, receiving the following citation: "Since assuming command of 617 Squadron in December 1944, this officer has taken part in almost all of the aerial sorties to which the formation has been committed. Early in February 1945, Group Captain Fauquier led the squadron in an attack on the U-boat pens at Poortshaven. Photographs obtained showed that the bombing was accurate and concentrated. Since then, this officer has participated in a number of sorties, during which the railway viaduct at Bielefeld, a railway bridge over the river Weser at Bremen, and a viaduct, were all rendered unusable to the enemy. By this brilliant leadership, undoubted skill and iron determination, this officer played a good part in the successes obtained. He has rendered much loyal and valuable service."
The government of France awarded Fauquier the Croix de Guerre with Palm and named him a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. At war's end he returned to private business. He died in Toronto on April 3, 1981.
John Emilius (Johnny) Fauquier was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: April 21, 1901
Birth Place: Victoria, British Columbia
Death Date: November 4, 1983
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy medal
“He coupled a professional calling with pioneer bush flying, and despite adversity, created new demand for air transport into virgin areas, substantially benefiting Canadian aviation." - induction citation, 1974
George Harold (Mike) Finland, B.Sc., was born in Victoria, British Columbia, on April 21, 1901. He was educated there and at the University of Washington from where he graduated in 1927 as a mining engineer. That same year he joined Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. (Cominco) on exploration work along the northern coast of British Columbia. He then moved to supervisory field positions in northern Saskatchewan until 1930.
A chance to train as a company pilot resulted in a transfer to Creston, British Columbia, at the flying school organized by W.M. Archibald (Hall of Fame 1974), Manager of Mining with Cominco at Trail, British Columbia. Here Finland earned his Private Pilot's Licence in 1930 and became one of Canada's earliest pilot-geologists. He explored northern Saskatchewan by air for mineral occurrences until late 1931, when economic conditions resulted in a slow-down to further explorations. In 1932 Finland completed an air navigation course with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) at Camp Borden Military Base, Ontario. During the financial crisis of the mid-1930's he became Advertising Manager for Cominco. He flew agricultural representatives on campaigns advertising and selling chemical fertilizers throughout the prairie provinces and eastern Canada in the company's Gipsy, Puss and Hornet Moth aircraft.
Finland's area of operations was expanded in 1935 to cover the northern sections of the prairie provinces to set up and supply preliminary mining operations. His airborne adventures in locating new mineral deposits, and in airlifting men and supplies to unmapped regions for investigative work, proved so successful that he was transferred to the Northwest Territories to explore new fields. In late 1935 he obtained his Air Engineer's Certificate, a necessity for pilots flying in isolated areas.
Making use of his dual profession, Finland logged thousands of miles flying an open cockpit Gipsy Moth airplane on floats in the North for Consolidated Mining and Smelting. At Yellowknife, where gold quartz had been found, he staked claims CON 1 to 14 in 1936, and these were developed to become the Con Mine. That mine led to the founding of the town of Yellowknife and the birth of the mining industry in the Northwest Territories.
Goldfields, on the north shore of Lake Athabasca, Saskatchewan, was his base of operations from 1937 until the outbreak of the Second World War. In this wilderness locale, Finland pioneered new methods of aerial prospecting, and used aircraft to great advantage to supervise both ground and water transportation of major equipment into isolated areas, opening up hitherto inaccessible mining fields. Interspersed with his aerial management flights over uninhabited and often uncharted terrain were emergency air ambulance flights to distant hospitals with injured workmen.
Finland was asked to help the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). He joined No. 2 Air Observer School (AOS) at Edmonton, Alberta, in 1942 as assistant to W.R. 'Wop' May, to manage the air training school there. From 1943 until the end of the war he served with No. 8 AOS at Quebec City, Quebec. In 1945 he began to work in mining development, and in 1953 became General Manager of the Alberta and Northwest Chamber of Mines, which served as the hiring hall for mines from Manitoba to the Alaska border. He retired in 1972.
In 1979 Finland was awarded the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy medal for distinguished service. He died in Edmonton on November 4, 1983.
George Harold (Mike) Finland was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: October 20, 1914
Birth Place: Manchester, Lancashire, England
Year Inducted: 1993
Awards: The Wright Brothers Medal (USA), The George Taylor Gold Medal (RAS), D.Eng.(Hon), FRAS, FCASI, FAIAA
"His outstanding accomplishments as an aeronautical engineer, manager and leader, and his superb organizational skills in the field of aeronautical engineering have been of lasting benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1993
James Charles (Jim) Floyd was born in Manchester, Lancashire, England, on October 20, 1914, and graduated from Manchester College of Technology in 1934. During his early career he was privileged to work under the guidance of two great British designers, Sir Sydney Camm of Hawker Aircraft, designer of the famous Hurricane Fighter and the Harrier 'jump jet', and Roy Chadwick, designer of the Avro Lancaster bomber. At Avro Manchester, Floyd was a design engineer on many notable aircraft types, including the Anson, Manchester, Lancaster, York, Lincoln and Tudor projects. He was part of a small team that turned the twin-engined Manchester into the four-engined Lancaster bomber, which would become one of the most famous and vital aircraft of World War II. He was later appointed Chief Project Engineer at the Avro design office in Yorkshire, working on the application of jet technology to transport aircraft.
In early 1946 Floyd came to Canada as Chief Design Engineer at A.V. Roe Canada Ltd., the newly established Avro subsidiary set up at the former Victory Aircraft Ltd. plant at Malton Airport, Toronto, Ontario. He immediately set to work to build a technical team to design a jet-powered transport around specifications established by Trans-Canada Airlines. Under his leadership, the Avro C-102 Jetliner was flying by August 1949, a little over two years from the release of the first drawings, a record time for a major transport project. Its first flight on August 10th was just days after the British-designed de Havilland Comet became the world's first commercial jet to fly.
The Jetliner, the first jet passenger airplane to fly in North America, established an impressive record in ramp-to-ramp trials for high speed, low maintenance, and reliability. Those trials also assisted the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States in establishing certification and operational requirements for jet passenger aircraft many years before such an aircraft went into service in that country. Ironically, at the start of the Korean War, the Canadian government ordered absolute priority to the CF-100 fighter project and the Jetliner was never put into production despite the declared interest of several American airlines and the United States Air Force. Even though the Jetliner project was cancelled, it brought international recognition and respect for Canada's engineering capabilities.
Floyd's work in the area of jet-powered passenger aircraft earned him the Wright Brothers Medal in 1950, the first time that award was ever given to a non-American. In 1952 he was made Chief Engineer and set up a team to bring the lagging CF-100 program to completion as a fully operational fighter. It served the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) for almost 30 years. This aircraft was also chosen by the Belgian Air Force as its front line jet interceptor.
Under Floyd's direction as Vice-President of Engineering, the Avro CF-105 Arrow supersonic interceptor was designed and developed. Its first test flight took place on March 25, 1958, with Jan Zurakowski (Hall of Fame 1974) at the controls. Canada was again leading the world in aviation technology. In 1958 Floyd was presented the McCurdy Award by the Canadian Aeronautical Institute for his leadership, organizational and engineering skills on both the CF-100 and CF-105 projects, two outstanding first-line fighters, designed and built in Canada. In the same year he was invited by the Royal Aeronautical Society to give the fourteenth British Commonwealth Lecture in London, England, where he presented a paper on the design and development of the Arrow.
Following the cancellation of the Arrow project in February 1959, Floyd went to England and was appointed Chief Engineer of an elite group of British and ex-Avro Canada engineers to undertake studies in state-of-the-art aeronautical and space projects at Hawker Siddeley Aviation's Advanced Project Group in England. One of these studies led to the British government's funding of the Concorde project. For his work, and papers on the problems of designing supersonic passenger aircraft, he was awarded the Royal Aeronautical Society's George Taylor Gold Medal in 1961.
In 1962 he formed his own aviation consulting firm of J.C. Floyd and Associates, serving international aviation interests, including a number of major Canadian companies. He was retained by the British government as a consultant on the Concorde project during the eight years of its development from 1965 to 1972.
After his retirement in 1980, he and his family returned to Canada. Since that time he has dedicated himself to encouraging young Canadians to re-light the flame of technological enthusiasm which will once again put Canada among the leading nations in aerospace technology.
For many years Floyd was Patron of the Aerospace Heritage Foundation of Canada and a director of the International Hypersonic Research Institute in the United States. In 1988 he was presented with a Lifetime of Achievement Award by the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada. Other awards include Fellowships in the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
On May 19, 2000 James C. Floyd was presented with the degree of Doctor of Engineering, honoris causa, by the Royal Military College of Canada at Kingston Ontario. His citation reads: “His involvement in the design and development of the ‘Jetliner’, ‘CF-100’, and ‘Arrow’ aircraft over a period which is viewed by many as the golden age of the Canadian aviation industry, exhibited in full measure not only his sound engineering judgement but also, and equally important, his ability to create, inspire and lead a large and highly competent technical staff.”
James Charles (Jim) Floyd was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1993 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
“The Avro Canada C102 Jetliner” - Jim Floyd (1986)
Birthdate: March 21, 1898
Birth Place: Oakville, Ontario
Death Date: October 4, 1975
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: United States Air Medal
"The application of his superior skills in aerial mapping and his mercy flights to aid others, despite adversity, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Norman Gladstone (Norm) Forester was born in Oakville, Ontario, on March 21, 1898. He was educated there and in Vernon, British Columbia, where his family moved when he was ten years old. He joined the Canadian Army Medical Corps in 1916 and served in England until the following year when he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps. He completed his aerial training and graduated as a commissioned officer, then flew as a pilot with the Royal Air Force. He returned to Canada in 1919 and turned to other pursuits until 1928, when he accepted a temporary commission with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). He proceeded to Camp Borden Military Base, Ontario, for a refresher course. He reported to Squadron Leader Roy Grandy and learned to fly seaplanes. He also studied navigation and aerial photography.
Forester's first base of operations in 1929 was at Senneterre, Quebec, when the RCAF was mapping the province extensively from the air. The following year he resigned his commission after an offer by Leigh Brintnell, General Manager of Western Canada Airways, to join this company as a commercial pilot. He reported to Don MacLaren, who was Superintendent of the company's Vancouver base.
Forester's first duty was the spraying of Stanley Park at Vancouver, British Columbia, with fellow pilot Jack Moar, to destroy a severe caterpillar infestation. His next assignment was to fly the coastal and fisheries patrols of that province. When the fisheries work was completed for the season, he was transferred to Winnipeg, Manitoba, where his duties included flying the night mail run to Regina and Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, air freighting ore concentrates from Manitoba mines, and flying forestry patrols.
During the winter of 1931-1932, Forester was based at Norway House at the north end of Lake Winnipeg. He flew supplies to Hudson's Bay posts in northern Manitoba and brought out ore concentrates from northern mines, using a Fokker Super Universal monoplane. In 1932 he was sent to Carcross, Yukon, to transport passengers and supplies into isolated areas. He carried out a number of mercy flights that resulted in the saving of human lives.
After a Canada-wide series of temporary postings, Forester was assigned to Western Canada Airway's Sioux Lookout base in Ontario, in 1934, flying equipment, supplies, and passengers throughout northern Ontario. In 1935 he was moved to flying operations in northern Manitoba. In 1936 Forester was assigned to carry out a high-altitude photographic survey in northern British Columbia. Operating for extended periods of time at altitudes up to 17,000 feet (5,200 m) in a specially outfitted Fairchild 71, he and Bill Sunderland, air engineer and camera operator, completed the task and returned to Sioux Lookout.
Forester's skills as a high-altitude photographic pilot were used extensively throughout Canada, mostly in northern regions. This was mostly seasonal work, interspersed with operational flying assignments. In 1938 Forester was asked to work full time in aerial photography, and was transferred to Montreal, Quebec, with Bill Kahre as his air engineer and camera operator, again using a Fairchild 71. This team also completed photographic surveys in the Maritimes.
After the outbreak of World War II Forester was seconded to instruct young student pilots in navigation at No. 2 Air Observer School at Edmonton, Alberta, a school managed by W.R. 'Wop' May. A year later he returned to aerial survey duties in Quebec and Newfoundland with Canadian Pacific Airlines (CPA), which had absorbed Canadian Airways Limited, which earlier had taken over Western Canadian Airways.
In January 1943, Forester was called by the United States Army to rescue the crew of an American Army C-87, a cargo variant of the B-24 bomber, which had been forced to land on a snow covered lake in northern Quebec almost three weeks before. The American Army did not have the capability of rescuing this crew although many planes were involved in the search. A US Army C-47, which had tried to rescue the bomber crew, was unable to take off on its wheels and was stuck in the deep snow. Those requiring rescue now included the crew of the C-47. Forester and his engineer, Norman Crewe, flew to the site in a Barkley Grow on skis and rescued the twenty man crew in two difficult flights. For this successful mission they were awarded the United States Air Medal.
During the next six years Forester continued in his role as an aerial photographic pilot throughout eastern Canada, until he was offered a Captain's position with CPA. From 1949 until his retirement nine years later, he flew DC-3's on scheduled airline flights throughout eastern Canada and Alberta. Forester died in Edmonton, October 4, 1975.
Norman Gladstone Forester was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: September 19, 1922
Birth Place: Toronto, Ontario
Death Date: August 23, 2011
Year Inducted: 1980
Awards: OC, The McKee Trophy, FCASI
"His ability as a pilot, together with his knowledge of flight engineering, has enabled him to provide major contributions to the engineering, flight testing and subsequent development of a family of short take-off and landing aircraft, which has brought his company to world leadership in that specialized field, and which contributions have been of significant benefit to Canadian aviation and to the nation." - Induction citation, 1980
Robert Howden (Bob) Fowler, OC, was born in Toronto, Ontario, on September 19, 1922, where he received his education. He was employed at Maclean Hunter Limited from 1939 to 1942, and during that time he learned to fly in a J-3 Cub at Barker Field, Toronto.
He joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in July 1942. After graduating from training as a Pilot Officer at Moncton, New Brunswick, in 1943, he was posted to England. There he served with 226 Squadron in the 2nd Tactical Air Force (TAF) of the Royal Air Force and completed 48 missions flying B-25 Mitchell bombers. Before returning to Canada in 1945 to receive his discharge, he ferried aircraft and instructed at the 2nd TAF Support Unit in the United Kingdom.
Fowler enrolled in the University of Toronto as a law student, but returned to full time flying the following year. He received his Commercial Pilot's Certificate in May 1946, and became Chief Pilot for Dominion Gulf Company of Toronto, carrying out magnetic surveys over northern Quebec and Ontario. Three years later he joined Spartan Air Services at Ottawa, Ontario, and spent the following three years in the Arctic and other parts of Canada engaged in high-altitude photo surveys, flown at 35,000 feet (10,700 m). He carried out airborne geophysical explorations using the magnetometer developed by Dominion Gulf. Fowler flew modified Lockheed P-38's in both of these operations. A photograph taken at 35,000 feet (10,700 m) covers exactly 100 square miles (258 square km).
In 1952 Fowler went to work as a test pilot for de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Limited (DHC). He was involved in flight testing all of the aircraft models manufactured by that company, commencing with the final certification of the last piston-engined aircraft they produced, the Caribou, a twin-engined short take-off and landing aircraft (STOL).
The Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy, Canada's highest award in aviation, was presented to Fowler in 1974. The citation reads, in part, "... this work was followed by an extended period of research flight testing, in which the aerodynamic and human factors of fixed-wing, steep gradient approaches and landings were explored, in a research aircraft utilizing modulated jet thrust. The work marked the means by which DHC embarked on the development of its turbine-powered aircraft. He performed the first flight of the prototype PT-6A turboprop engine. He also carried out the first flight and initial development flight testing of the prototype General Electric YT 64 turboprop engine. He also performed the first flight tests and much of the subsequent development testing and certification of the Turbo Beaver, Buffalo and Twin Otter aircraft, all of which have found wide acceptance in world markets."
On March 27, 1975, Fowler carried out the first flight testing of the DHC Dash 7 aircraft and performed much of the subsequent development flight testing. On June 20, 1983, Fowler performed the first flight testing of the first DHC Dash 8/100 airliner and again was involved in much of the follow-up development flight testing. Four years later he took part "in the first flight of the Dash 8/300, the 50-passenger stretched version.
Fowler's prominent position in the development of de Havilland's aircraft was not confined solely to experimental flying. He had a keen interest in, and made significant contributions to, the development of flight controls and propeller systems, helping DHC to become a world leader in the design and production of STOL aircraft.
Between 1972 and 1974, Fowler worked with the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames Flight Research Center at Mountview, California. Here he and Seth Grossmith were involved in the creation and flight testing of the Augmentor Wing Jet Research Aircraft. They were two of the Canadians who flew the augmentor wing Buffalo at the Ames Center. The new wing design used an augmentor flap through which air was blown. It also had leading edge slats, and rotatable, thrust-vectoring ducts on the engines. Tests on the Buffalo proved that steep approaches could be made at speeds as low as 55 knots (100 km/h), and takeoffs using as little as 350 feet (106 m) of runway.
During a 49-year career as a professional pilot, mainly in the area of flight testing, Fowler flew more than 15,000 hours as captain-in-command of some 60 aircraft types. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute. In 1975 he was created an Officer of the Order of Canada (OC) for his service to the nation. Fowler retired in September of 1987 after 35 years of test flying at de Havilland. He died, in his 89th year, at his home in Weston, Ontario on August 23, 2011.
Robert Howden Fowler was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1980 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
“The Chosen Ones - Canadian Test Pilots in Action” - Sean Rossiter (2002)
Birthdate: September 8, 1906
Birth Place: Sackville, New Brunswick
Death Date: January 19, 1986
Year Inducted: 1974
"The total dedication of his well-rounded aeronautical career to improving the nation's air service, despite adversity, has been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Walter Warren (Walt) Fowler was born in Sackville, New Brunswick, on September 8, 1906. In 1928 he earned a Commercial Pilot's Certificate at the Jack Elliot Flying School in Hamilton, Ontario, under the instruction of Len Tripp. International Airways in St.-Laurent, Quebec, hired him as a mechanic in 1929 and transferred him to Windsor, Ontario, attending to air mail service aircraft and supplying hourly weather reports over teletype. Fowler's desire to become a professional pilot led him to undertake two additional jobs that summer: instructing students, and working as night mechanic for the Windsor Flying Club.
In 1929, when International Airways merged with Canadian Airways Limited, Fowler was assigned to Detroit, Michigan, the terminus of Canadian Airway's air mail service to Detroit-Windsor. The following year he was moved to Moncton, New Brunswick, as pilot mechanic for the Magdalen Island and Prince Edward Island air services and given operational command of the Moncton Flying Club.
His exceptional flying abilities qualified him to attend an instructor's course with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) at Camp Borden Military Base, Ontario. On graduation in 1930 he was named Superintendent of the Maritime Region for Canadian Airways, and instructor for the Moncton Flying School. Two years later he was based at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, a time in which the company's Maritime routes were upgraded to daily service. During this period he flew scheduled passenger flights between Montreal, Moncton and Charlottetown, and earned his Air Engineer's Licence. Again, Fowler's abilities were recognized by his appointment to the first civilian instrument flying course offered by the RCAF at Camp Borden in 1933.
Bush flying operations out of Senneterre, Quebec, for Canadian Airways were placed under his command in 1937, when he took over the base from Paul Davoud. This base was used to provide service to northeastern Ontario and northern and central Quebec. A considerable number of emergency flights were carried out from this base. In October 1937, Fowler resigned his position after ten years with the company. He then applied for a position with Trans-Canada Airlines. He reported to TCA in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and was one of the first six pilots to take flight training. His first line flight was in a Lockheed Electra on November 9, 1937.
With TCA, Fowler flew every Canadian route, including a number of inaugural flights, one being their first scheduled passenger flight between Montreal and Moncton. Named Flight Superintendent of TCA's Atlantic region 1939, he was transferred to Moncton and became familiarly known as 'Mr. TCA'. In 1942 he inaugurated the Moncton-St. John's, Newfoundland, air service, linking Canada with that island.
In June 1940, he was assigned to TCA's war-time ferry service, flying aircraft into Canada from various American manufacturers to be used at the RCAF training base at Trenton, Ontario. At this time as well, he used his exceptional skills in instrument flight to train American pilots who were scheduled to ferry aircraft across the North Atlantic to the United Kingdom. During this same period he continued his regular scheduled flights with TCA.
In March 1944, Fowler was transferred to Winnipeg as Assistant General Manager and gradually eased himself out of professional flying. The senior appointments that followed utilized his superior knowledge of air operations in the Maritimes, until he became General Manager of the Atlantic region in August 1969.
He retired in 1971 after logging some 10,000 pilot-in-command hours in 41 aircraft types, from World War I trainers to four-engine airliners, without injury to passenger or crew. Fowler died in Moncton, New Brunswick on January 19, 1986.
Walter Warren (Walt) Fowler was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: December 24, 1909
Birth Place: Vancouver, British Columbia
Death Date: September 14, 1995
Year Inducted: 1983
"His leadership in Canadian bush plane operations, his foresight in the use of helicopters for oil explorations, and his tenacity in keeping the DEW Line supply to Canadian operators, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation,1984
Thomas Payne (Tommy) Fox was born December 24, 1909, in Vancouver, British Columbia, where he attended school. He started his own trucking business and operated a wood and coal supply company. He learned to fly in Vancouver, receiving his Private Pilot's Licence in 1930. The following year he constructed a Pietenpol Air Camper from plans published in a home mechanics magazine, and flew it for several years. It was considered to be one of the first successful 'homebuilts' to be constructed and flown in western Canada.
In 1939 Fox joined Canadian Airways Limited which operated No. 2 Air Observer School in Edmonton for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). In 1940 he became Assistant Operations Manager, responsible for the supervision and training of pilots. Three and a half years later, he joined No. 45 Group, Royal Air Force Transport Command (RAFTC) as an aircraft ferry pilot. He completed 30 trans-Atlantic crossings, delivering Consolidated B-24 Liberators and Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, mostly to the Middle East and India.
At the end of the war, Fox returned to Canada and formed Associated Airways Limited at Edmonton, Alberta, with his partner, David C. Dyck. They had two aircraft, a de Havilland Dragonfly and a Tiger Moth. Fox obtained his Air Engineer's Licence and was Associated Airway's sole aircraft mechanic. In the first few years of operation, the company provided passenger flights, charter flights, and flight instruction, and started a regular flight service to northern Alberta communities.
During the search for oil in Alberta in 1950, Fox saw the potential value of the helicopter to the exploration and surveying phases of the oil industry. Associated Helicopters Limited was formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary, and a Bell 47-D1 was purchased and put into immediate service in the Lesser Slave Lake area in northern Alberta. Additional helicopters were acquired and used in the transport of survey crews and equipment into otherwise inaccessible regions.
In 1951 he purchased Territories Air Services Limited and Yellowknife Airways Limited in the Northwest Territories from Matt Berry. By the end of the year Associated Airways had charter bases at Edmonton and Peace River in Alberta, and Fort Smith, Hay River, and Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories.
Fox made a major move in 1952 and bought his first Bristol Freighter, using it to transport heavy equipment into remote mining and oil drilling sites. In 1955 Associated Airways was designated the prime contractor to supply the western Arctic section of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line. Four Avro Yorks were acquired to undertake the massive airlift of men and materials to the Arctic radar construction sites.
Fox joined the Air Industries and Transport Association (AITA) in 1947 and distinguished himself there with his consummate diplomacy. He was elected to the Board of Directors in 1949, and after serving as Western Vice-President for a number of years, was elected President in 1954. In an unprecedented move, he was re-elected for the 1955 term and under his leadership, the Association played a major role in ensuring that air transport requirements for the construction of the DEW Line would be handled by Canadian civilian operators. The Association's successful efforts in obtaining this agreement added many millions of dollars to the industry at a critical time in its development.
As the company's fleet of aircraft grew, Aero Engineering was acquired as a subsidiary in Edmonton to undertake major overhauls of engines, propellers and airframes, and to perform similar work for other aircraft owners.
In 1956 Associated Airways was sold to Pacific Western Airlines (PWA), and as a director and vice-chairman of the new Board of Directors of PWA, Fox played a leading role in the acquisition of jet aircraft for that company. Fox sold Associated Helicopters to Neonex Group in 1969, but remained with the company as Chairman of the Board until his retirement in 1971.
Fox was a director of the International Northwest Aviation Council (INAC) for a number of years and was elected Vice-President in 1950. He served as chairman of the Aviation Committee of the Edmonton Chamber of Commerce. He was a Life Member of the Air Transport Association of Canada (ATAC) and the Edmonton Flying Club, of which he was a long-time director. For many years he provided leadership for several community-minded associations and societies in Edmonton. Fox died in Edmonton on September 14, 1995.
Thomas Payne (Tommy) Fox was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1984 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: December 24, 1951
Birth Place: Montreal, Quebec
Year Inducted: 2016
Starting as an air traffic controller with Transport Canada, Kathy Fox held senior positions with NAV CANADA, and post-retirement was appointed as Chair of the Transportation Safety Board, maintaining her interest in aviation safety. Her wide experience over 40 years includes international flying competitions and continuing as a flying instructor. Award Citation, 2016
Kathleen Fox had wanted to fly from an early age, but put her plans on hold while she earned a Bachelor of Science degree at McGill University. While at McGill she responded to an advertisement for skydiving, took up the sport and over the next 10 years completed some 648 parachute jumps. She became Chief Instructor for the McGill Skydiving Club. She earned an Expert Parachutist Licence, qualified as an Instructor Examiner and was Area Safety Coordinator of the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association (CSPA) for Quebec. She became the first female president of the Association at age 20, serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1978. She let two Canadian parachute teams in competitions in France in 1979 and China in 1980.
Following graduation from McGill in 1972 and still yearning for a career in aviation, she began work with Transport Canada in 1974 as an air traffic controller at various Quebec control towers. Sheered her Private Pilots Licence in 1978.
She continued her training and earned her Commercial and Airline Transport Pilot Licences, qualifying for multi-engine, instrument and instructor ratings. She earned a Class 1 Instructor rating in 1988 and in 1989 was authorized by Transport Canada as a Designated Flight Test Examiner.
In 1982 she took up a new opportunity, this time to work in a Quebec program for French language training for Air Traffic Control (ATC) trainees. She took a leave from ATC while she headed a new department for development and delivery of the curriculum for almost four years.
Continuing her education, Fox returned to McGill, earning a Master’s Degree in Business administration in 1986. After graduation she returned to Air Traffic Control in Montreal, and in 1987 was acting manager of the St. Hubert tower. In 1989 she undertook Instrument Flight Rating controller training for ATC at Montreal, continued to teach flying, and was then transferred nay Transport Canada to Ottawa to a managerial post. While there she was hired by the Rockcliffe Flying Club in 1993 as a Flight Instructor and Flight Test Examiner.
Following increased responsibilities with Transport Canada, Fox transferred to NAV CANADA in 1996, and became Director, Safety and Quality in 1997. In 1999 she became Director, Air Traffic Services, was promoted to Assistant Vice-President, Air Traffic Services, and became Vice-President Operations in 2003.
In that capacity, she was responsible for providing leadership and direction throughout NAV CANADA’s Operations Group, which oversaw all seven Area Control Centres, 42 Control Towers, 60 Flight Service Stations, and seven Flight Information Centres across Canada. Her duties also included operation training of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Service Specialists.
In July 2007 Kathy Fox retired from NAV CANADA and was appointed as a board member of the Transportation Safety Board of Canada, responsible for investigating air, rail, marine and pipeline accidents. Again she continued her pursuit of higher education, and in 2009 she received a Master of Science degree in Human Factors and System Safety from Lund University in Sweden. Her extensive work in the field of aviation safety helped lead to her appointment in 2014 to a four-year term as Chair of theCanadian Transportation Safety Board.
Beyond a stellar career in aviation for over 40 years, Fox has flown over 5000 hours as a pilot and instructor. She served three times as a member of the Canadian Precision Flying Team, representing Canada at world championships in 1996, 1999 and 2000. A member for 30 years of the Ninety-Nines, an international organization of licenced pilots where she had held many offices.
She has received many accolades for her work, including the Elsie MacGill Northern Lights Award in 2010, and the David Charles Abrasion Memorial Flight Instructor Safety award from the Air Transportation Association of Canada. She continues to instruct at the Rockcliffe Flying Club. She retains her passion for flying and flight safety, and is continually sought after for her insight into many aviation related matters.
Kathleen Carol Fox was inducted as a Member of Canada’s Aviation Hal of Fame in 2016 in a ceremony held at Ottawa, Ontario.
Birthdate: August 8, 1922
Birth Place: Brantford, Ontario
Death Date: April 28, 1974
Year Inducted: 1980
Awards: D.F.C., The Clarence N. Sayen Award (IFALPA), The Ken Wright Memorial Trophy (CALPA).
"His exceptional abilities as an aviator in both war and peace, coupled with his exemplary qualities of leadership and dedication to purpose, brought credit to his chosen profession and to the organizations for which he laboured, resulting in the advancement of aviation in Canada." - Induction citation,1980
James Henry Foy, D.F.C., was born in Brantford, Ontario, on August 8, 1922. With Robert Fowler, he attended Vaughan Road Collegiate in Toronto, Ontario, where he planned to enter university to study international law. On October 24, 1940, he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), trained as a pilot and was posted to England in June of 1941, where he served with Bomber Command of the Royal Air Force (RAF).
Following operational training, Foy flew with 405 and 419 Squadrons, RCAF. He was promoted to commissioned rank in 1942, and within a few months, had completed 31 operational flights on Vickers Wellington bombers. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (D.F.C.) with the following citation: "Flying Officer Foy now on his second tour of operational duties has participated in a large number of operational sorties including the 1,000-bomber raids on Cologne, the Ruhr and Bremen. On two occasions he successfully flew his aircraft home on one engine. On completion of his first operational tour, this officer served for some time as a pilot instructor. His operational record as a deputy flight commander has been of the highest order."
Foy was seconded from operations and trained as an instructor. He later returned to 405 Squadron which had, in his absence, become a unit of 8 Pathfinder Group, and completed another 15 missions on Halifax bombers.
His Halifax bomber was shot down on July 16, 1943, on his 47th operational sortie while engaged as a 'target lighter'. He and his crew parachuted into German-occupied France, where he spent eight months working with the French underground resistance movement. They convoyed other downed allied air crew members to safety from Paris across the Pyrenees Mountains and Spain, to Gibraltar. He used the same route to make his own escape. On his return to England in April 1944, he was promoted to Flight Lieutenant and was Mentioned in Despatches on two occasions. His work with the French precluded his return to operational flying and he was released from service.
Foy was hired by Trans-Canada Airlines in August of 1944 as a co-pilot. Two years later he was promoted to Captain. During a 30-year career with TCA and Air Canada, Foy flew all of the fleet's aircraft, from the Lockheed 14 to his final assignment on the DC-8, on all domestic and overseas routes. His total pilot-in-command time exceeded 21,000 hours.
Foy's flying abilities were coupled with numerous contributions to the development of aviation in Canada through organizational work. He served with distinction on a number of committees of the Canadian Air Line Pilot Association (CALPA). He was elected President of that organization in 1957, an office he held for five years. He then accepted the position and responsibilities of Deputy-President of the International Federation of Airline Pilots Association (IFALPA) from 1962 to 1964. He was appointed President and served an additional three years. He became the only Canadian elected to head this group which represented the pilot associations of 65 countries. He took on a number of challenges while serving with CALPA and IFALPA, including work on training standards, medical problems, and remuneration standards. For his contributions to IFALPA he was awarded the Clarence N. Sayen Award in 1969, to recognize outstanding contributions within the Federation.
Foy died in Toronto, Ontario on April 28, 1974. Two years later he was posthumously awarded CALPA's Ken Wright Memorial Trophy for "outstanding airmanship and professional performance, contributing to the enhancement and image of airline pilots."
James Henry Foy was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1980 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: March 4, 1901
Birth Place: Weston, Ontario
Death Date: January 4, 1986
Year Inducted: 1983
Awards: O.B.E., C.D.*, Legion of Merit (USA), The Theodore C. Lyster Award, The Eric Liejencrantz Award, FAMA, FCAI
"His invention of the Franks Flying Suit and the human centrifuge, which have been accepted throughout the aerospace industry, and his significant contributions to research in aerospace medicine have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation," - Induction citation, 1983
Wilbur Rounding Franks, O.B.E., C.D.*, B.A., M.A., M.D., was born in Weston, Ontario, on March 4, 1901, and received his elementary and secondary education in Regina, Saskatchewan. He graduated from the University of Toronto with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1924, his Masters Degree in Physiology in 1925, and three years later he graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine. He then took a rotating internship at the Toronto General Hospital and assisted Dr. Frederick Banting with research projects. During 1930-31, while on sabbatical leave, he undertook post-graduate studies at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, and the University of Munich, Germany.
Upon his return to Canada in September 1931, he resumed his career as a research associate with the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research at the University of Toronto, and specialized in cancer research. In 1937 he was appointed an associate professor at the University. During the period 1939-41, he performed defence medical research with Dr. Frederick Banting, and because of the highly secret nature of his work, he was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps. When the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) formed its own medical branch, he was transferred to it with the rank of Flight Lieutenant.
Military doctors who studied aviation medicine were aware that the newest fighter and bomber aircraft of the time had exceeded the physical capabilities of the pilots and crews who operated them. Pilots were experiencing G-forces many times the pull of gravity, and were temporarily losing consciousness from the effects of centrifugal force. Dr. Banting was approached to provide assistance, since his fame as co-discoverer of insulin would be certain to result in funding for research.
Franks was a senior researcher on Banting's team, and he began active medical research into solving the problems related to high altitude flying and high G-force manoeuvers. During his cancer research experiments in 1938 he had discovered that he could prevent small test tubes from breaking while being accelerated if he immersed them in larger, stronger, laboratory centrifuge tubes filled with water. He concluded that a similar immersion should protect pilots who are subjected to high radial accelerations and de-accelerations. He designed a protective suit consisting of durable non-stretch fabric containing water filled bladders which fitted over a person's abdomen and legs. The suit automatically exerted counter-pressure by hydrostatic force during high G-force loadings, and proved that the principle Was practicable. Franks was the first person to be protected from radial acceleration in an aircraft during tests while wearing the Franks Flying Suit.
During this time, Franks was instrumental in procuring facilities for the RCAF No. 1 Clinical Investigation Unit. As early as 1939 he had sketched out the fundamental design for a man-rated centrifuge, consisting of a gondola at the end of a rotating boom. Once Franks' concepts had been laid out, the over-all design and engineering was carried out by members of the Engineering Faculty at the University of Toronto. The end result was the RCAF human centrifuge, the first machine of its kind on the Allied side in the Second World War. The centrifuge was used to produce various G-forces at high speeds, simulating the effect of manoeuvers in combat aircraft. The basic design is still used to train astronauts.
Franks was appointed Director of Aviation Medical Research, RCAF, Overseas, and in March 1941 he proceeded to RCAF Headquarters at London, England. He served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) Physiological Laboratory, and the Royal Aeronautical Establishment at Farnborough. He also served with the Air Fighter Development Unit at Duxford, RAF Fighter Command, and the Fleet Air Arm in connection with the further development and introduction of the G-suit. This was the first G-suit to be used operationally anywhere in the world.
Franks returned to Canada as a Squadron Leader in 1943, and until 1945 he served as Director of the Investigation Section of the RCAF Headquarters Directorate of Medical Services in Ottawa. That appointment was followed by attachment to the RCAF Institute of Aviation Medical Research, National Research Council, Ottawa, correlating the work of both civilian and military research projects being carried out in Canada.
He retired from the RCAF in 1946, but retained his association with the air force in the capacity of Scientific Advisor in Aviation Medicine with the RCAF Institute of Aviation Medicine. He also returned to the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research to continue cancer research on a part-time basis. The remainder of his time was absorbed in the area of aerospace medicine. He published several articles related to his research. He retired from the department in 1969.
For his contributions to the advancement of aerospace medicine, Franks was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) in 1944, and received the United States Legion of Merit in 1946. The Aerospace Medical Association (USA) awarded him the Theodore C. Lyster Award in 1948 for outstanding research in aerospace medicine, and the Eric Liljencrantz Award in 1962 for outstanding research in problems of acceleration and altitude. He was made a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association in 1950 and the Canadian Aeronautical Institute in 1960. He was appointed Honorary Physician to the Queen in 1966 and Honorary President of the Canadian Society of Aviation Medicine in 1974.
Franks' interest in the field of aviation continued and in 1976, he co-fostered the development of the Universal Language of Air and Space Operations known as UNIGEN. The Aerospace Linguistic Foundation is developing the language as a response to linguistic problems encountered by modern-day air traffic controllers and air crew on a world-wide basis. He died at Toronto on January 4, 1986.
Wilbur Rounding Franks was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1983 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: August 21, 1904
Birth Place: St. John's, Newfoundland
Death Date: March 5, 1990
Year Inducted: 1987
"His exceptional flying abilities coupled with scientific interest in aviation have made him an honoured member of Canada's flying fraternity and earned him a prominent place in Newfoundland history." - Induction citation, 1987
Douglas Cowan Fraser, LL.D.(Hon), was born in St. John's, Newfoundland, on August 21, 1904, while that island was still a colony of Britain. His early education took place at Bishop Field College in St. John's and following graduation he attended Framlington College in Suffolk, England. While there he made his first flight at Cricklewood Airport. In 1927 Fraser returned to Canada and began to work for Curtiss-Reid Aircraft Manufacturing Company at Cartierville, Quebec. He earned his Private Pilot's Licence in 1928 and a Commercial Licence the following year.
With the assistance of several St. John's businessmen, Fraser formed Old Colony Airways in 1931. During the early 1930's, facing some of the most difficult and treacherous flying weather, and with little financial support, he promoted aviation throughout Newfoundland. Except in the cases of mercy flights, there was little public support for his work, and government assistance was not forthcoming.
Using a Curtiss Robin on floats, Fraser was involved in forestry patrols and aerial location of squid, capelin and seals for the Department of Fisheries. He flew surveying parties, geological expeditions, mercy flights and aerial searches throughout Newfoundland.
Fraser began flying for Imperial Airways in 1934. At the time, the company was making an aerial survey of Newfoundland to establish triangulation points for the Geodetic Survey of Canada. He was instrumental in the successful completion of this project. In 1936 Imperial Airways transferred him to England where he flew as co-pilot on routes between England, France, Belgium, Italy and Ireland. He returned to Newfoundland to prepare for the trans-Atlantic flying boat operations at Botwood on the northern shore, and the subsequent operation of British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and Pan American Airways at Gander, Newfoundland.
Fraser was responsible for the calibration of the wireless direction-finding stations at Botwood and Gander. At the same time he conducted daily upper air meteorological flights in support of the trans-Atlantic operations while stationed at Norris Arm, near Botwood. His aerial surveys resulted in the establishment of large military airports at Stephenville, on the west coast, and Argentia, on the south coast of Newfoundland. On his recommendation, Gander airport, which he had surveyed with Lord Snowdon Gamble of the British Air Ministry, was built and he was the first to land there after its completion.
In 1982 Memorial University of Newfoundland awarded Fraser an Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree. He died in St. John's in 1990.
Douglas Cowan Fraser was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1987 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: November 16, 1916
Birth Place: Halifax, Nova Scotia
Death Date: October 19, 2003
Year Inducted: 2005
Awards: D,S,C,*, C,D,**, Legion of Merit (USA)
"His inspired leadership and vision in guiding the post-war modernization and growth of Canada's Naval Air service, which earned him the title 'Father of Canadian Naval Aviation", together with his skills as an aviator and as an astute operational planner, have proven to be of outstanding benefit to aviation in Canada." - Induction citation, 2005
Alexander Beaufort Fraser Fraser-Harris, D.S.C.*, CD**, was born on November 16, 1916 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. At the age of 13 he entered the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth, England as a cadet on a Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship. He graduated as a Midshipman in 1936.
In 1938, after earning his watch-keeping certificate, he joined the rapidly expanding Fleet Air Arm and began flight training. He was granted his wings on April 1, 1939 and went on to the Royal Naval Air Service for advanced flying training and naval fighter course. He was sent to HMS Argus for deck landing qualification.
Fraser-Harris was promoted to Lieutenant on April 15, 1939 and joined No. 803 Naval Air Squadron on HMS Glorious based at Wick, Scotland. In late 1939 the Squadron flew Blackburn "Skua" dive-bomber aircraft on convoy protection and fighter patrols over North Sea shipping. He took part in the raids on Bergen Harbour, Norway on April 10, 1940, in which the German cruiser Kønigsberg was sunk. This was the first sinking of a major warship by air attack during WW II. Fraser-Harris was credited with a direct hit and subsequently received the Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) and was 'Mentioned in Dispatches'. In a later raid on a shipping and seaplane base at Trondheim, Norway, he was shot down but with the aid of local villagers, he eventually returned to England.
In 1940 Fraser-Harris trained as an instructor and in 1942 he was named Commanding Officer of No. 807 Squadron which flew Seafires off HMS Furious when it embarked on operations in the Mediterranean theatre. He was shot down during a raid on airfields near Oran and soon escaped and rejoined his ship. He was awarded a bar to his D.S.C. on September 22, 1942.
On February 1, 1943 he joined the staff of Naval Air Service as Senior Operations Officer. He assisted in planning the naval air operations in support of the invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944. Later that year he was sent to Cape Town, South Africa as Chief Flying Instructor, where he prepared naval aviators for demanding service in the British Pacific Fleet. He was confirmed as Lt. Commander on August 16, 1945 and appointed Commanding Officer of RNAS Wingfield, which was part of the South African Air Training Plan.
Fraser-Harris transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1946 to assist in the development of its naval aviation program. He joined RCAF station Dartmouth, Nova Scotia as Commanding Officer and oversaw the formal transferal of its air section to the Navy. In July 1948 he was promoted to Acting Captain in Command of the newly created HMCS Shearwater. At age 32 he was the youngest captain in any Commonwealth Navy.
In 1949 he reverted back to Commander in order to attend the US Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island. From August 1950 to September 1951 he served as Commanding Officer of the destroyer HMCS Nootka operating in the Korean War theatre, and as senior Canadian Naval officer in the theatre. He was made a Legionnaire of the Legion of Merit (USA) in recognition of his outstanding leadership during the Korean conflict. The citation states: "For exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States, ... By his expert seamanship, sound judgement and inspiring devotion to duty . . . upheld the highest traditions of the Naval Service." He was again 'Mentioned in Dispatches'.
In 1951 Fraser-Harris was appointed Commander at HMCS Stadacona at Halifax, Nova Scotia. His next appointment was to Naval Headquarters in Ottawa as Director of Naval Aviation from March 1953 to October 1955. During this critical period he was a driving force in the modernization of the new light fleet carrier HMCS Bonaventure with modifications that included the angled deck, steam catapult and the stabilized mirror landing system which made possible the introduction of jet aircraft. He also was instrumental in acquiring the Grumman Tracker and the Banshee jet fighter for the carrier, and the formation and equipping of HS-50, the new Anti-Submarine Warfare Helicopter Squadron.
The skilled leadership of Fraser-Harris, now Captain, enabled him to make these major changes in the Canadian Naval Aviation inventory. His very strong and dedicated leadership were needed to co-ordinate the many departments involved.
These changes had a profound impact on naval air facilities and required the urgent introduction of a modern aviation safety program. This included improved aircrew safety equipment, a new runway for jet aircraft at HMCS Shearwater and major changes in aircrew and maintenance personnel training. This period also saw the beginning of plans to operate helicopters from destroyers.
The decisions made on Fraser-Harris' watch would shape operations through the remainder of the 1950's and 1960's, a period in which Canadian naval aviation developed into an effective carrier-based anti-submarine force. It was recognized as second to none among the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) maritime forces in the context of the 'cold war' period when the Soviet Union was operating many nuclear weapon equipped submarines.
In 1955, following his service as Director of Naval Aviation, Fraser-Harris attended the National Defence College of Canada and was appointed Commanding Officer of HMCS Magnificent, the first Canadian naval aviator to command a carrier. He commanded HMCS Magnificent during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956, fulfilling Canada's commitment to United Nations operations in Suez. He also served as Naval Deputy to the Commander of the UN forces sent to Egypt at that time.
Later in 1956 Fraser-Harris was appointed to the staff of the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) at Norfolk, Virginia. He served there as Assistant Director Plans until 1960 when he became Director of Naval Ship Requirements at Naval Headquarters in Ottawa. Here he was again to have a major impact on the design of the new helicopter carrying destroyers that were in the advanced planning stage. Upon promotion to Commodore on October 12, 1962, he was appointed Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Air and Warfare) where he served until July, 1964.
When plans were being made to unify the Canadian Forces, Fraser-Harris opposed the concept. He argued that multi-role combat vessels with tactical air capabilities could support ground forces on overseas deployments. When centralization preceded, he refused further promotions and retired from the Canadian Navy in April 1965 at the age of 48.
In 1965 he took up a new career in the yachting business as a charter boat skipper in the West Indies. With a Master's ticket, he was called upon to deliver various yachts from the UK for their owners. He built up a successful business as a yacht surveyor, assessing their condition, systems, seaworthiness and suitability.
His flying logbook includes over thirty fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft in which he qualified during a flying career that spanned 35 years. He was a member of NAMS (National Association of Marine Surveyors) and the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.
In 1985 Fraser-Harris returned to live in Bournemouth, England where he died at the age of 86 on October 19, 2003.
Alexander Beaufort Fraser Fraser-Harris was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 2005 at ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: October 29, 1891
Birth Place: Pictou, Nova Scotia
Death Date: March 6, 1968
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: A.F.C., C.D., The McKee Trophy
"The application of his exceptional abilities as a pilot and instructor, and his unswerving demand for perfection in flight during a distinguished and dedicated career, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Elmer Garfield Fullerton, A.F.C., C.D., was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, on October 29, 1891, was educated there before attending Royal Military College at Kingston, Ontario. He enlisted in the Royal Canadian Signal Corps in 1915 and spent a year in France before transferring to the Royal Navy Air Service (RNAS) where he learned to fly. Until the end of the war he served as a flying instructor and a fighter pilot, then attended Royal Naval College. On his return to Canada, he became an instructor with the Canadian Air Force (CAF) at Camp Borden, Ontario. While there, he qualified for his Commercial Pilot's Certificate and Air Engineer's Licence.
In 1920 Imperial Oil geologists discovered oil at Fort Norman, near the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories. At that time it took weeks or months to reach this far north by railway, then by steamboat or dogsled. The company decided to try the new concept of air transport and purchased two Junkers aircraft. In 1921 Fullerton left the service to join Imperial Oil Limited as a pilot. Almost immediately, the company assigned him to pilot aircraft G-CADP, known as 'Vic', with George Gorman flying G-CADQ, or 'Rene', on a pioneer flight into the Mackenzie River district. They became the first airmen to penetrate that area of Canada. Unfortunately, Gorman suffered two mishaps on attempted take-offs in deep snow, using first one plane and then the other, at Fort Simpson. Skis were damaged during these attempts, but much worse, the propellers of both aircraft were broken beyond repair, stranding the expedition for a possible five months until the Mackenzie River became navigable.
Air engineer William Hill, with the assistance of Walter Johnson, the Hudson's Bay Company carpenter at Fort Simpson, decided to make a propeller for 'Vic'. They found several oak sleigh boards which they laminated with glue made from boiled dried moose hides. After the glue was dry, the wood was carefully carved and sanded to the exact shape that was needed. The process took eight days, and became an internationally publicized engineering feat. Fullerton tested the propeller with the plane on the ground and then made a successful six hour, nonstop flight to the company's southern base at Peace River, Alberta.
In 1923 Fullerton rejoined the CAF as a Flight Lieutenant engaged in airborne fire patrols out of High River, Alberta. Later he was ordered to Vancouver, British Columbia, as a flying-boat pilot for the Canadian Customs and Fisheries Departments. In 1926 he returned to Camp Borden, and after completion of a senior RAF program in England, was named Chief Flying Instructor. His outstanding abilities were recognized by the RAF in 1931 when he was asked to instruct their Fleet Air Arm pilots in carrier deck operations. A posting to the RAF Central Flying School in England was followed by a tour of duty in Egypt grading pilots who were instructing there. He again returned to Camp Borden as Chief Flying Instructor and completed the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Staff College course.
Fullerton commanded No. 7 General Purpose Squadron at Rockcliffe, Ontario, in 1934, teaching both military and civilian pilots the art of instrument flying. In 1935 he was awarded the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for his contribution to Canadian aviation during the preceding year. He was the first permanent member of the RCAF to be so honoured. Until 1938 he served in staff positions before taking command of No. 1 Fighter Squadron at Trenton, Ontario. He was the first pilot in Canada to test-fly the Hawker Hurricane fighter.
At the outbreak of World War II, Fullerton was assigned to 15 Auxiliary Fighter Squadron, Montreal, Quebec, as instructor in air fighting tactics, then named Senior Air Staff Officer, No. 3 Training Command. From 1941 to 1945 he was Commanding Officer of No. 9 Service Flying Training School at Summerside, Prince Edward Island. During the time he was at Summerside, he was instrumental in developing the familiar blue, maroon and white RCAF tartan which was officially registered on August 15, 1942.
Fullerton was awarded the Air Force Cross (A.F.C.) for meritorious contribution to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) in training large numbers of air crew. He also received the Canadian Forces Decoration (C.D.). Until his retirement as Group Captain in 1946, he commanded the RCAF Station at Trenton, Ontario. He died in Calgary, Alberta, on March 6, 1968.
Elmer Garfield Fullerton was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.