Birthdate: August 7, 1923
Birth Place: Pinsk, Poland
Death Date: October 28, 1991
Year Inducted: 2003
"His vision of the needs of the people in a large, remote and challenging area of Canada, along with his persistence, ability, courage and dedication to carry out his dream contributed immensely to the betterment of life at isolated communities in the Mackenzie Delta, and resulted in the advancement of aviation in Canada." - Induction citation, 2003
Michael Zubko was born in Pinsk, Poland on August 7, 1923. He immigrated to Canada with his family in 1931 and settled in Edmonton, Alberta, where he was an honour student. While in high school, he took an electronics course and obtained his Amateur Radio Operator's Licence.
He showed an early interest in aviation, and accepted Canadian Pacific Airlines' offer for its Air Engineer's Course. CP Air posted him to the North in 1944, and he spent time at Fort Smith, Norman Wells and Yellowknife, NWT as crewman/flight engineer on various 'bush' aircraft. He spent the next few years learning aircraft maintenance and overhaul. During this time he got his first look at the Mackenzie Delta and Aklavik.
Zubko received his Aircraft Maintenance Engineer's Licence in 1946, and returned to Edmonton to earn his Private Pilot's Licence (May, 1946) and Commercial Pilot's Licence (February, 1947).
Early in 1947 he left CP Air. While in the North, he had seen the need for flying services in the Aklavik area and applied to the Air Transport Board for a Charter Licence, which was granted in April, 1947. He purchased an Aeronca Champ, a two-place tandem aircraft powered at 85 hp, and headed for Aklavik, a distance of over 1400 miles (2250 km), a long haul at 85 mph (136 kph). He then established Aklavik Flying Service Ltd., the first Class IV charter service north of the Arctic Circle.
To appreciate the enormity of the task, the northwest corner of the North West Territories, which includes Aklavik, is an area of roughly 150,000 square miles (388,500 sq. km). It extends from Norman Wells in the southeast, Banks Island in the north, Herschel Island to the west, and Dawson City in the south. There were few radio facilities for communication or navigation.
Aklavik was the centre of economic and social activity for the Mackenzie Delta, so it was a natural place to set up business. A great deal of Zubko's early flying was transporting local people to their trap lines, fish camps, etc. At that time, there were no roads - all travel was by dog team, canoe or boat. The air service he provided soon became a vital link between isolated communities such as Tuktoyaktuk, Kittigazuit, Letty Harbour, Paulatuk, Reindeer Station, Arctic Red River, Fort McPherson, Old Crow and Herschel Island.
He purchased two more aircraft in the next two years, a three-place Piper Supercruiser and a Standard Waco, and hired two pilots. Business gradually expanded and was increasingly utilized by Federal Government departments, such as the RCMP, Forest and Wildlife, Indian Affairs, Department of Health, as well as traders, fur buyers and prospectors.
Zubko's mechanical skills were also in demand. A small workshop was built on skids so it could be moved onto the river ice in winter and up onto the bank in summer. The harsh climate is tough on mechanical equipment. Working outdoors under severe winter conditions was unbelievably difficult, and frostbitten hands and faces were frequent occurrences. He proved to be a great innovator, and whether it was a broken undercarriage strut, a bent propeller, torn fabric, or a balky engine, he usually had the solution.
His own resourcefulness was fully tested on more than one occasion. Forced down in December, 1948 by engine failure on a flight from Fort Good Hope to Aklavik with Dr. John Callaghan and patient Vital Barnaby, Zubko's courage and determination came to the fore until help arrived some three days later.
In the spring of 1950, about the time Zubko was planning to ferry an aircraft south for its annual check and changeover to floats, a measles epidemic broke out among the native population. Both Aklavik hospitals were soon full and there were numerous deaths. He and his company flew day and night - there is little darkness in May - with Dr. Ken Ward in tow, tending to the sick in their camps and flying the worst cases to the hospitals in Aklavik. This was accomplished under very difficult conditions. The snow was melting and the ice was becoming treacherous for ski operations, but the flights were completed without incident. Zubko had a reputation for never refusing help to anyone, even though he knew there might be no payment at the end of a mercy flight.
It was during this period that the Federal Government decided to relocate the townsite of Aklavik. The town, built on river silt and permafrost, was deemed impractical for the construction of an airport. A new site was chosen 30 miles (48 km) to the east on higher ground, to be known as Inuvik. Zubko had visions of improved facilities and advocated for upgrading navigational aids, aviation weather services and aviation facilities. He was very busy flying surveyors, carpenters, etc., to this new site, and his opinions were sought because of his local knowledge. In 1959 he moved his air operations to Inuvik and built a home there.
The North changed dramatically in the mid-1950's when the Distant Early Warning System (DEW Line) was constructed. Airports, communications and navigation facilities were established from Alaska to the Eastern Arctic. Aklavik Flying Service played an active role during this construction period, 1955-1957, flying goods and personnel to various sites on the Western Arctic coast.
There were some setbacks in the 1960's, such as damaged aircraft and fluctuating fur prices. It was also difficult to keep experienced pilots, as once they gained some experience they could get higher paying jobs in the south. There was a brief interruption in service in the late 1960's, but Zubko returned in 1970 with a Cessna 180 and a Cessna 185. A year later he added another Cessna 185 and a leased de Havilland Beaver.
In 1973 two new Cessna 185's and a de Havilland Twin Otter were added to the fleet. He then completed a heavy maintenance course on Pratt & Whitney PT6 turbine engines at Longueil, Quebec and obtained a turbine endorsement on his AME licence to cater to the new aircraft. He also completed a Business Law course and a Business Management course. In 1975 a customized Aerostar was purchased and used a great deal for medical evacuations.
Over 200 medivacs were carried out during the earlier years, many under adverse weather conditions. It is without a doubt that due to Zubko's contribution that many lives were saved over the years, the first one in August, 1947 when he flew the resident doctor to Tuktoyaktuk to aid an Inuvialuit woman who was encountering trouble during childbirth.
Zubko was very active in the aviation community. He was a founding member of the Northern Air Transport Association (NATA) in 1976 and served on the Board until his death in 1991. He was appointed to the Worker's Compensation Board of the NWT in 1982 and served on various committees of that Board until 1989. In July, 1985 he was appointed Chairman of the Industrial Adjustment Committee of Inuvik, sponsored by Canada Employment and Immigration, to study and report on the effect to Inuvik of the closing of the Canadian Forces Station. He was appointed to the Civil Aviation Tribunal in 1987 and served until his death on October 28, 1991.
Zubko was nominated for the Order of Canada but did not live long enough to receive it. It is not bestowed posthumously.
In 1995, when the Inuvik Airport was officially transferred from the federal to the territorial government, it was renamed Inuvik Mike Zubko Airport in his honour. His son Tom officiated in his capacity as Mayor of Inuvik.
Michael Zubko was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 2003 at a ceremony held in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Birthdate: September 12, 1914
Birth Place: Ryzawka, Russia
Death Date: February 9, 2004
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: The Polish Virtuti Militari, Cross of Valour ** (Poland), The McKee Trophy
"The dedication of his aeronautical skills to the successful flight testing of Canada's first supersonic aircraft resulted in outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Janusz (Jan) Zurakowski was born on September 12, 1914, in Ryzawka, Russia, and moved to Poland seven years later where he was educated at Garwolin and Lubin. As a youth he was interested in aviation, and won a 1929 national competition for building model airplanes. The prize was a ride in a plane, Zurakowski's first flight. In 1932, while attending high school, he learned to fly gliders built by his older brother.
In 1934 he joined the Polish Air Force, and in 1937 was posted to No. 161 Fighter Squadron at Lwow, Poland. At the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, he was an instructor in a Polish fighter squadron.
When Poland was defeated by Germany in 1939, Zurakowski escaped to England. He flew for the British Royal Air Force (RAF), and during the Battle of Britain, while flying with Nos. 234 and 609 Squadrons, he was credited with destroying three enemy aircraft in combat. In April 1942, he was promoted to Flight Lieutenant and several months later took command of NBo. 316 Polish Fighter Squadron. The following year he was named Deputy Wing Leader of the Northolt Wing. For his wartime services he was awarded the Polish Virtuti Militari and Polish Cross of Valour, with two Bars. He was twice Mentioned in Despatches for his conduct during engagements with the enemy.
In 1944, after completing the Empire Test Pilot's Course, Zurakowski was posted to the RAF's Aircraft and Armament Experimental Establishment, test flying de Havilland's Hornet fighter. In 1947 he joined the Gloster Aircraft Company as an experimental test pilot. He test flew the later models of the Meteor fighter, which was first flown in 1943 and was Great Britain's first jet fighter. He also test flew the Javelin, a delta-wing model. On April 4, 1950, he established a new international air speed record between London-Copenhagen-London in a Meteor Mk 8.
Zurakowski immigrated to Canada in 1952 to join Avro Aircraft Limited at Toronto, Ontario, as Chief Development Test Pilot. For the next few years he worked as test pilot on the development of the CF-100 fighter aircraft which was being built at that time. In 1952 he flew the CF-100 Mk.4 in a power dive through the sound barrier, a feat previously thought impossible. It was the first Canadian designed aircraft to reach that speed.
During this period, initial work on a new Canadian supersonic aircraft was in progress, the Avro CF-105. The idea of a supersonic interceptor, known later as the Arrow, originated in 1951 when the Avro team in Canada under Jim Floyd submitted a brochure to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) containing proposals for supersonic fighters. In March 1952, an operational requirement was received from the RCAF for an all-weather interceptor. In June 1952, the company presented two proposals: a single and a twin-engine delta-wing interceptor with a two-man crew. In June 1953, the company presented the CF-105 proposal and obtained instructions to go ahead with the design study. This aircraft was meant to defend Canada's Arctic against possible Soviet attack, and was designed to meet specifications that hold up today, including flying at Mach 2, twice the speed of sound.
After six years at Avro, Zurakowski was chosen to be the first pilot to fly the Arrow. On March 25, 1958, he completed the first flight of the prototype, checking the response of controls, engines, undercarriage and air brakes, handling qualities at speeds of up to 400 knots, and low speed in a landing configuration. He flew Arrow models 1, 2, and 3 on a total of 21 test flights, climbing higher and flying faster. He flew it at Mach 1.89, another Avro test pilot, W. 'Spud' Potocki took it to Mach 1.98, but it was never tried at maximum speed. On February 20, 1959, production of the aircraft was halted by the Canadian government and the five existing planes and others in production were ordered to be destroyed, along with all blueprints, brochures, reports and photographs.
Zurakowski was awarded the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for 1958 in recognition of this experimental work and two years later retired from aviation to engage in the tourist business at Barry's Bay, Ontario.
On March 20th 2000 was honoured when the new hangar of the Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment (AETE) at Cold Lake, Alberta was named ‘Janusz Zurakowski’. He was honoured again the same year at Los Angeles, California, when he was named an Honourary Fellow in The Society of Experimental Test Pilots, it was noted at the time: “there are not many test pilots whose total flying careers included fighting for two countries, winning the highest award for wartime valour given by his native country, and going from biplanes to Mach 2”.
In 2003, Zurakowski Park was officially opened on July 26th in his honour at Barry’s Bay, Ontario. The park consists of a large scale replica of the Avro Arrow with a statue of Zurakowski, as well as a tourist pavilion with interactive displays.
Just before his death at Barry’s Bay, Ontario on February 9, 2004 Jan Zurakowski’s assisted Bill Zuk in writing the book: Janusz Zurakowski: Legend in the Skies.
Janusz 'Jan' Zurakowski was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held at Edmonton, Alberta.
“Janusz Zurakowski: Legend in the Skies” by Bill Zuk - (2010)
“The Chosen Ones - Canadian Test Pilots in Action” - Sean Rossiter (2002)