Birthdate: February 23, 1949
Birth Place: Quebec City, Quebec
Year Inducted: 2008
Awards: C.C., C.D., LL.D.(Hon), FCASI
"Throughout his long and distinguished career as an astronaut and executive, he has inspired countless young Canadians, contributed to the growth and development of the Canadian Space Agency and brought honour and recognition to Canada." - Induction citation, 2008
Marc Garneau, C.C., C.D., B.Sc., Ph.D., FCASI, was born on February 23, 1949 in Quebec City. He studied Engineering Physics at the Royal Military College of Kingston, and earned his Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, in 1973.
He began his career as a naval officer in 1973 and was based in Halifax, serving as an engineer and instructor. In 1980 he began working with the Naval Engineering Unit where he helped develop an aircraft-towed target system to measure naval gunnery accuracy. Promoted to the rank of Commander in 1982, he was transferred to Ottawa in 1983 and became design authority for naval communications and electronics warfare equipment and systems.
In 1983 Garneau answered an ad from the National Research Council for Canadians to apply to become astronauts to fly in future space missions. Out of nearly 4300 applications, he was one of six chosen to become the first group of Canadian astronauts, and in 1984 was selected as number one to go. He was then seconded from the Navy to the new Canadian Astronaut Program to begin a short period of rigorous training at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. His first flight, STS-41G, was on the shuttle Challenger from October 5-13, 1984 as payload specialist, becoming the first Canadian to fly on a NASA mission to space.
He was promoted to Captain in 1986 but ended his naval career in 1989 after 23 years service to become deputy director of the Canadian Astronaut Program, where he provided technical and program support for future Canadian missions.
In 1992 he was selected for the year-long mission specialist training course at the Johnson Space Center. He worked on technical issues for the Astronaut Robotics Integration Team, becoming an expert in operating the Canadarm. He also became the first non-American ever to work in the key role of spacecraft communicator, CAPCOM, in Mission Control during more than a dozen shuttle flights.
Garneau flew on two further flights. He was mission specialist on space shuttle Endeavour, flight STS-77, from May 19-29, 1996, which focused primarily on micro-gravity research (effects of weightlessness) and the launch and retrieval of the Spartan spacecraft using the Canadarm.
For his third space flight, STS-97, he was mission specialist and flight engineer on the Endeavour from November 30 to December 11, 2000. The Endeavour brought up truss structure P6 weighing 17 tons to the International Space Station. P6 included the first large solar panels to be deployed on the Station. He used the Canadarm to maneuver the gigantic P6 truss segment out of the cargo bay and into place, manipulating the robotic arm from inside the spacecraft while two of his crew mates completed operations from the outside. The station derives its power from the conversion of solar energy into electrical power, and these new panels greatly increased the power supply for the ISS.
In February 2001 he was appointed executive vice-president of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and later that year became its president, a position he held until 2005. As President of the CSA, he was responsible for a staff of approximately 700 and an annual budget of some $300,000,000. He drafted the Canadian Space Strategy, a Cabinet-approved document that defined the mandate and the long-term vision of the Canadian Space Program. A number of major programs were initiated or completed under his leadership. New partnerships were created with countries such as China, India, and Israel; existing partnerships with NASA, the European Space Agency, the Russian Space Agency and the Japanese Space Agency were renewed. During his tenure as president, Garneau focused on building stronger links between CSA and its stakeholders, the scientific community, government and industry.
As President of the CSA, he was responsible for the smooth deployment of Canada's robotic contribution to the ISS, the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). This also included training facilities at the CSA itself to train all astronauts and cosmonauts using the MSS, as well as a CSA control centre responsible for supporting Houston during MSS operations on the Station. Without this unique and indispensable Canadian system, now seven successful years in operation, the highly complex ISS simply could not have been built. His stewardship of this dimension of the ISS program was a major element of Canada's role in an exclusive group of nations.
Garneau logged about 678 hours n space during his three missions. Even more importantly, and often working behind the scenes, he used his engineering expertise, his passion and his quiet grace to bring success to Canada's space program and create opportunities for Canadian astronauts who followed in his footsteps.
Passionate about planetary exploration and a visionary in formulating a role for the Canadian scientific community, Garneau has fostered new developments in Canadian technologies and has spoken out in support of another important role for Canada, this time in Moon and Mars exploration. His foresight and convincing leadership are focused on ensuring that Canadian scientists remain at the leading edge of research on our solar system and beyond.
Garneau has received many honours and awards. In August, 2003 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest honour. He was installed as the ninth Chancellor of Carleton University in 2003. His work with students is recognized: two high schools have been named after him; he is an Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Navy which promotes Sea Cadets; and No. 599 Royal Canadian Air Cadets Squadron is named in his honour.
Garneau is an Honorary Fellow of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI), Member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Nova Scotia, and the Navy League of Canada. He was named Honorary Member of the Canadian Society of Aviation Medicine in 1988 and a Member of the International Academy of Astronautics in 2002. He is the National Honorary Patron of Hope Air and Project North Star and the Past-President of the Board of the McGill Chamber Orchestra.
He has been awarded many Honorary Doctorate degrees, and special recognitions from NASA for his exceptional service. He was inducted into the Quebec Air and Space Hall of Fame in 2001, and among his long list of awards is the Prix Montfort en sciences which he received in 2003. Marc Garneau is indeed a person of the world. If one simply types his name into the famous 'Google' search engine, the system responds with more than 13,000 items!
Garneau resigned from the Canadian Space Agency in 2005. He responds to many requests for speaking engagements, and at the present time is a Member of Parliament for the riding of Westmount Ville-Marie, Quebec.
Marc Garneau was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame at ceremonies held in Toronto on May 28, 2008.
Birthdate: July 13, 1894
Birth Place: Toronto, Ontario
Death Date: November 16, 1974
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: A.F.C., C.M., The McKee Trophy *, The McCurdy Award (CASI)
"His fathering of a series of short take-off and landing aircraft, each of which gained world-wide acceptance, has been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation," - Induction citation, 1974
Philip Clarke (Phil) Garratt, A.F.C., C.M., was born on Friday, July 13, 1894, in Toronto, Ontario, where he was educated. He left the University of Toronto in 1915 to undertake basic training with the Curtiss Aviation School in Toronto as one of its first students. He earned his pilot's wings with the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) a year later in England. He served for some months with No. 70 Squadron, RFC, in France as a reconnaissance pilot, before being posted to the Gosport Flying School in England as an instructor, serving in that capacity until the end of the war. He was awarded the Air Force Cross (A.F.C.) for his services.
When W.G. Barker and W.A. Bishop (both Hall of Fame 1974) formed a commercial flying service in 1920, Garratt obtained a Civilian Aviator's Licence and was hired as a pilot. He did some barnstorming with the company, but the firm was not successful. He joined the Canadian Air Force as an instructor at Camp Borden, Ontario, but left the service the following year to enter the chemical business. He maintained his flying interest with a part-time job as test and ferry pilot for de Havilland Aircraft Canada (DHC) at Toronto until 1936, when he became Managing Director of the company.
Quick to recognize the value of opening up Canada's northland for the exploration and development of natural resources, Garratt concentrated DHC's efforts on modifying their production aircraft to operate in this new environment. The Moth series had already been adapted for float operations. Under his direction, the Dragonfly and Dragon Rapide were successfully put to use as sturdy and rugged bush planes. Then he turned his attention to re-tooling the British parent company's highly successful training plane, the Tiger Moth, for use by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). DHC produced 1,747 of these training aircraft during the Second World War. As well, he managed to produce more than 1,000 Mosquito fighter-bombers, and assemble 375 Avro Anson aircraft.
During the post-war period, the demand for a modestly-priced bush aircraft led Garratt to order the design and construction of a modified Fox Moth. He promoted production of the Chipmunk trainer, which served the air forces of many countries and remained the basic training aircraft of the RCAF for two decades.
In 1947 his foresight led to de Havilland's construction of the Beaver, the most successful work aircraft in Canadian history. More than 1,600 were built and, under the direction of C.H. 'Punch' Dickins and Russ Bannock (both Hall of Fame 1974), sold to 65 countries for both civil and military use. This success was followed by production of the Otter, Caribou, Buffalo, Twin Otter, and the 4-engined Dash-7, all short take-off and landing aircraft (STOL), which earned DHC a world-wide reputation.
Garratt received many honours and awards for his dedication and effort towards the improvement of aviation in Canada. He was chosen to receive the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for 1951 for his distinguished aviation accomplishments. In 1960 he received the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute's McCurdy Award, and in 1966 he was named recipient of the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for the second time, in recognition of his fifty years' contribution to aviation in Canada. On May 2, 1973 Phil Garratt boarded a Wardair Boeing 747 (CF-DJC - named the P.C. “Phil” Garratt) with Max Ward & other pilots and families for the inaugural flight from Everett, Washington to Toronto, Ontario.
He retired as Chairman of the Board of de Havilland Aircraft Company in 1965, retaining a seat as Director until his full retirement in 1971, after a half-century as a pilot and aviation executive. In 1971 he was made a Member of the Order of Canada (C.M.). Garratt died in Toronto on November 16, 1974.
Philip Clarke Garratt was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: March 8, 1899
Birth Place: Cardinal, Ontario
Death Date: October 18, 1986
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: FRGS, FRCGS, The McKee Trophy
"His challenging fights into the high Arctic under the most primitive conditions, to explore and record unmapped areas, despite adversity, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - induction citation, 1974
Walter Edwin Gilbert was born in Cardinal, Ontario, on March 8, 1899, and was educated there. In 1917 he enlisted in the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) at Toronto, Ontario, received his pilots wings and was posted to the RFC's Central Flying School in England. At the height of the German offensive in 1918, he was sent to France as a front line fighter pilot with RFC Squadrons 56 and 32, and was invalided back to Canada the following year with disabilities.
During the next seven years Gilbert flew only occasionally, updating his skills with the Canadian Air Force at Camp Borden, Ontario. He co-founded the International Air Force Club at Vancouver, British Columbia in 1923, which became the Aero Club of B.C. and an original unit of the Royal Canadian Flying Clubs Association (RCFCA). In 1927 he flew forestry patrols in Manitoba and aerial mapping assignments in northern Saskatchewan as a pilot with the newly created Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
Gilbert was invited to join Western Canada Airways, formed in 1926 by James A. Richardson. He was the youngest pilot in the company. His first posting was to Cranberry Portage, Manitoba, then to Vancouver for a year on charter work, fishery patrols, and freighting equipment into the mountainous areas of Alaska.
Fort McMurray, Alberta, was Gilbert's base of operations for the next five years. He flew the first freight into the Great Bear Lake radium discovery site with C.H. ‘Punch' Dickins, and subsequently flew out the radio-active concentrates that would later be used in nuclear fission experiments. He became a seasoned northern pilot with a surveyor's eye for topographical detail.
In the summer of 1930 Gilbert was named pilot of a government-sponsored aerial expedition to the high Arctic, flying Canadian Airways' Fokker G-CASK with Major L.T. Burwash as the leader of the expedition. They accomplished several tasks: recording the magnetic properties near King William Island, checking the location of the North magnetic pole, finding old campsites of the ill-fated Franklin expedition that had vanished 80 years earlier, and photographing and mapping a major stretch of the Arctic coastline.
For his survey and photographic work, as well as flying to the North Magnetic Pole, Gilbert was honoured with a Fellowship in the Royal Geographic Society and was named a Fellow of the Royal Canadian Geographic Society in 1932. He was also made a member of the Explorers Club.
At Aklavik, Northwest Territories, in 1931, Gilbert met Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lindbergh during their flight to the Orient. He was able to help them get their heavily loaded Lockheed float plane off the glassy waters of the Mackenzie River by using his Fokker Super Universal to roughen the water. That same year Canadian Airways Ltd. expanded by absorbing Western Canada Airways. In 1934 Gilbert piloted the first airmail flight from Cameron Bay on Great Bear Lake, to Coppermine on the Arctic coast, opening the first post office on the Arctic Ocean. In March 1934, it was announced that Gilbert would receive the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for 1933 in recognition of his exploratory flights in northern Canada.
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, was his next base of operations until 1938, the year he was transferred to Vancouver as District Manager of Canadian Airways. When Canadian Pacific Airlines was formed in 1942 by the absorption of a number of smaller companies, among them Canadian Airways, Gilbert was appointed Superintendent of the Edmonton district in 1943. A year later he retired from northern aviation service, took an extended holiday and in 1951 moved to Washington State to supervise an aerial spraying company until his retirement.
During his aviation career he flew 37 aircraft types and penetrated deeper into the unknown Arctic than any Canadian airman before him. Gilbert died on October 18, 1986 at Point Roberts, Washington.
Walter Edwin Gilbert was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: July 27, 1890
Birth Place: Killarney, Manitoba
Death Date: January 1, 1982
Year Inducted: 1978
Awards: M.C., A.F.C., The McKee Trophy
"His record can be matched only by those airmen of high endeavor and professional calling, who have devoted their lives and skills to the benefit of the free world, despite adversity, and whose contributions have substantially benefitted Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1978
Albert Earl Godfrey, M.C., A.F.C., was born in Killarney, Manitoba, on July 27, 1890. He grew up in Vancouver, British Columbia, where he attended school, and joined the 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles in 1902 as a drummer boy and bugler. Godfrey enlisted in the 11th Canadian Mounted Rifles in 1915 and was soon transferred to the 1st Canadian Mounted rifles. He was transferred to the 1st Canadian Pioneer Battalion to embark for England, and the following year was commissioned as a Lieutenant Observer with the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). He was assigned to combat in France with No. 10 Army Co-operation Squadron and No. 23 Fighter Squadron, RFC, and shortly after was credited with downing two enemy aircraft.
Pilot training in England followed in 1917 with W.G. Barker. Godfrey then joined No. 40 Squadron, RFC, and within nine months had destroyed 13 1/2 enemy aircraft and two observation balloons. For these victories he was awarded the Military Cross (M.C.).
While serving with this unit he designed a mounting for twin machine guns on his Nieuport aircraft, the first single-seater fighter to be so equipped in France. His last operational flying assignment was in September 1917, as a night fighter pilot with 44 Squadron, the Home Defence Unit of the RFC in England. In this role he flew a Sopwith Camel against enemy zeppelins and bombers attacking London.
Promoted to the rank of Squadron Leader in 1918, Godfrey was named Commander of the School of Aerial Fighting at Beamsville, Ontario. For meritorious service he was awarded the Air Force Cross (A.F.C.). At war's end he retired from the service and joined the Civil Aviation Branch of the Government of Canada. He flew fishery patrols along the Pacific Coast, and as a civilian pilot, earned both an Air Engineer's Certificate and Commercial Pilot's Licence in 1921. In 1922 he was recalled to service in the newly formed Canadian Air Force, and took command of the Vancouver unit as Squadron Leader when the RCAF came into being two years later.
While serving with Air Force Headquarters at Ottawa, Ontario, Godfrey was assigned in 1926 to accompany an American sportsman, J. Dalzell McKee, on the first flight of a seaplane across Canada. Using the fueling and servicing facilities of the RCAF bases spaced across the nation, and the Ontario Provincial Air Service, the flight in McKee's Douglas seaplane began September 11 in Montreal, Quebec, and was completed September 19 in Vancouver, British Columbia. In nine days Godfrey and McKee covered 3,000 miles (4,800 km), in 35 flying hours. They established three Canadian flight records: it was the first time one aircraft of any type had flown all the way across Canada; it was the first time a seaplane made such a flight; and it was the first time an airplane of any type had flown nonstop across the Rockies from Edmonton to Vancouver.
In appreciation for the service rendered to him by the RCAF, Mr. McKee presented and endowed the Trans-Canada Trophy. This award was created in 1927 to honour airmen who were considered by a panel of judges to have contributed most substantially to the advancement of Canadian aviation in any given year. The first recipient of the trophy was "Doc" Oaks for the year 1927.
In September 1928, Godfrey flew a Fairchild seaplane carrying the first official trans-Canada airmail from Ottawa to Vancouver, making the trip in three days. He served in various posts until the outbreak of World War II, when he was promoted to Air Commodore and given command of Western Air Command. As Deputy Inspector General of the RCAF in 1942, he inspected the force's facilities. He brought to that command a full grasp of international military aviation affairs, having been schooled at both the RAF Staff College and the Imperial Defence College in England. The following year he was promoted to the rank of Air Vice-Marshal. He retired from the service in 1944.
It is significant to note that Godfrey was named winner of the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy in 1977, the 50th anniversary of the award. In presenting this honour, the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, custodians of the trophy, stated: "Godfrey's dedication to the advancement of flying in Canada was not confined to a singular or spectacular feat. His service to Canadian aviation was invariably performed behind the scenes and always as a participant out of the public eye."
Earl Godfrey died in Kingston, Ontario, on January 1, 1982.
Albert Earl Godfrey was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1978 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: September 2, 1896
Birth Place: Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Death Date: July 17, 1976
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: O.B.E., A.F.C., Star of Menelike (Ethopia), The McKee Trophy
"His vision, foresight and application of airborne skills, despite adversity, during the birth of civil aeronautics, have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Stuart Graham, O.B.E., A.F.C., was born in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on September 2, 1896. He moved to Canada and received most of his education in Nova Scotia. He enlisted in the Canadian Army in 1915 and was sent to France with the 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles. He transferred to the Royal Naval Air Service and received pilot training in France. He was assigned to patrol the Allied shipping lanes in flying boats and seaplanes until war's end, and was awarded the Air Force Cross (A.F.C.) for his actions against two enemy submarines.
Graham returned to Canada in 1919, convinced of the potential of air operations in Canada. He learned of a group of pulp and paper companies in the St. Maurice River Valley of Quebec who were interested in air patrols for fire protection purposes and aerial surveying of their timber limits. With his assistance the St. Maurice Forest Protective Association completed a loan agreement with the Canadian government, purchased two Curtiss HS-2L flying boats, and hired him as pilot. His first assignment was to fly both aircraft from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Lac a la Tortue (Grand'Mere), Quebec. His wife, Madge, sat up front in what was the gunner's cockpit, protected from the spray by a canvas cover. Aviation historians recognize him as the nation's first professional peacetime pilot, and this operation as the beginning of bush flying in Canada.
He was the sole pilot of this extensive operation during the first two years, and was involved with forest fire patrol, forest inventory, aerial mapping and survey, and transportation. In 1920 he and air engineer Walter "Bill' Kahre flew a forestry engineer into an isolated area of Quebec to stake Canada's first mining claim using an aircraft for transportation. In 1920 Graham and Kahre went to Long Island, New York, to pick up a Curtiss Seagull, which proved to be a more economical flying boat to operate. From 1921 until 1923 he represented Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company in Canada.
While engaged as a pilot, Graham designed a sectional canoe which could be carried aboard an aircraft, a remote control landing-direction indicator for use at airports, and an automatic view-finder camera control, all of which were commercially successful. The view-finder camera control was not further developed by the Canadian Government but instead, the patent was taken over by Fairchild Camera Corporation in exchange for use of the camera in survey activities.
For two years Graham worked with Canadian Vickers Limited at Montreal, Quebec, on aircraft construction, in particular, the production of the Vickers Vedette flying boat. In 1926 he served with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) as aircraft acceptance test pilot and on aerial mapping. From 1928 to 1939, Graham worked with the Air Services Division of the Canadian government as one of two District Inspectors, who between them supervised air operations throughout Canada. He was in charge of accident investigations, and one of his primary duties was the testing of pilots for licences. His keen interest in aviation history led to the recovery and preservation of numerous Canadian aeronautical treasures now in the National Aviation Museum in Ottawa.
During World War II, Graham planned airports and facilities across Canada for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). In 1945 he was named an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) for his services. After the war he became technical and safety representative to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and Chairman of their Air Navigation Committee. He contributed significantly to the drafting of standards, regulations and operating procedures for both national and international civil aviation.
From 1951 to 1963 he was aviation advisor for ICAO to various underdeveloped countries in the Middle East, Latin America, East Africa, Haiti and Rwanda-Burundi. He was decorated with the Star of Menelik by Emperor Haile Selassie for organizing the Civil Aviation Department of Ethiopia. He retired from active flying in 1963 to research and write the history of northern Canadian aviation.
Graham died on July 17, 1976. In 1988 the National Aviation Museum opened in Ottawa with a memorial honouring him. The Curtiss HS-2E flying boat, Ea Vigilance, with which he pioneered bush flying in 1919, has been restored and is part of the aircraft collection.
In 1991 Graham was awarded the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy with the following citation: "Aviation in Canada has been significantly enriched by this talented and inventive man whose devotion to the advancement of aviation in this country is so well recorded in the footsteps he has left behind him. He was a Canadian of whom we can all be proud."
In 1997 the Community Cablevision Company of Grand'Mere, Quebec, produced a documentary film depicting the story of Graham's career.
Stuart Graham was named as a member of the ‘Quebec Air and Space Hall of Fame’ in 2001.
Stuart Graham died July 17, 1976.
Stuart Graham was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: March 5, 1894
Birth Place: Bay L'Argent, Newfoundland
Death Date: April 8, 1965
Year Inducted: 1988
“His flying expertise was remarkable as were his leadership abilities. Despite adversity he took the guess-work out of the centuries-old industry of sealing. Perhaps of greatest benefit to Canadian aviation was his dedication to the younger generations of pilots whom he trained and groomed to his own standards of excellence." - Induction citation, 1988
Roy Stanley (Bill) Grandy, O.B.E., was born in Bay L'Argent, Newfoundland, on March 5, 1894. By the age of 16 he had already sailed around the world and earned the nickname 'Sailor Bill' because of his heavy Newfoundland accent. The name 'Bill' stuck with him. Although he came to love flying, he never lost his love for the sea, which undoubtedly contributed to his expertise as a flying boat and seaplane pilot. He once said that aerobatics was much like being atop the mast in a sailing boat during rough weather.
In 1912 Grandy joined military reserve unit No. 96 Lake Superior Regiment. At the outbreak of World War I, he joined the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, where he became a Signals Officer. He saw active service in France and Gallipoli. In 1916 he was seconded to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) where he earned his Royal Flying Club Certificate at Central Flying School, Uphaven, Wiltshire. He served as a fighter pilot with Sopwith Camels on the western front and was Mentioned in Despatches. He was later assigned to the prestigious instructor school in Gosport. He left the Royal Air Force in 1919.
Grandy earned the reputation for being both a precision pilot and able instructor after joining the Canadian Air Force in At Camp Borden Military Base he was noted for his skills in landing his Avro 504K, which had no brakes, and stopping almost exactly where he wanted it. By 1921 he was issued his Air Engineer's Certificate and Commercial Pilot's Licence. He left the Canadian Air Force (CAF) in 1923 to enter civil aviation.
Grandy joined Laurentide Air Services where he pioneered aerial surveying, mapping, and fire patrolling in eastern Ontario and Quebec. He was the pilot on the first regular airmail service in Canada to Rouyn, Quebec.
In 1924 Grandy made two unprecedented flights. The first made a remarkable improvement to the centuries-old seal hunt in his native Newfoundland. Until that time, the sealers relied on their own instincts to find the herds of seals, and they were not eager to change their ways until Grandy proved that the use of an airplane to spot the herds would be very effective. In the spring of that year, he flew an Avro 'Baby' biplane off the ice beside the sealing ship S.S. Eagle. After spotting the seals, Grandy pointed the sealers in the right direction. Had he not intervened, a large herd of seals would have been missed as the ships were actually sailing in the opposite direction.
Later that year, Grandy made a flight which was to prove a rare accomplishment for that period in aviation: he flew a Vickers Viking flying boat 900 miles (1,450 km) over a period of 12 days to pay treaty money to Natives on various reserves in Northern Ontario. He followed the Albany River to Fort Albany on James Bay, and flew northward from there.
In 1925 Grandy rejoined the RCAF where his exceptional skills were used in all phases of service flying. He was one of a very few pilots certified to test and qualify both civilian and military pilots as flight instructors. He was also the testing pilot for the Webster Trophy contests. He was actively involved in the early attempts to develop an airmail route from the Atlantic coast where mail was transferred from ocean vessels to a flying boat, thus speeding the mails to central Canada. In 1934, in recognition of his work on mail routes, RCAF Headquarters recommended Grandy be installed as an Officer in the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (O.B.E., Military).
When World War II broke out Grandy was Commanding Officer at RCAF Station Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. He was promoted to Group Captain in 1940, and when the Battle of the Atlantic developed, he was appointed Commanding Officer of the RCAF base at Torbay, Newfoundland. He was rewarded again during World War II by being Mentioned in Despatches.
One of Grandy's most challenging and rewarding postings was to Camp Borden as Commanding Officer while the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was in full operation. He was an inspiration to hundreds of young airmen who passed through his base. He retired from the RCAF in 1946. Grandy died in Toronto on August 4, 1965.
Roy Stanley (Bill) Grandy was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1988 at a ceremony held in Toronto, Ontario.
Birthdate: November 2, 1917
Birth Place: Trail, British Columbia
Death Date: August 9, 1945
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: V.C., D.S.C.
“His winning of the Victoria Cross in aerial combat must be regarded as one of the most outstanding contributions possible to the military aspect of Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1974
Robert Hampton Gray, V.C., D.S.C., was born in Trail, British Columbia, on November 2, 1917, and received his early education at Nelson, British Columbia, graduating from high school there in 1936. The following year he enrolled at the University of British Columbia and had completed three years of an arts course by 1940 when he offered his services to the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve (RCNVR).
After reporting to HMCS Stadacona, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Gray was sent, with the rank of Ordinary Seaman, to HMS Victory at Portsmouth, England, in September 1940. From there he reported to HMS St. Vincent at Gosport to train for his commission in the Fleet Air Arm. Following promotion to Sub-Lieutenant, RCNVR, in December 1940, he was given six months of operational training at Collins Bay, Kingston, Ontario. He returned to England to serve in No. 757 Squadron at Winchester and then sailed for a tour of duty in Kenya, where he was attached to Nos. 795, 803 and 877 Squadrons, part of the time being spent aboard HMS Illustrious.
Gray was promoted to Lieutenant in December 1942. In August of 1944 he joined 841 Squadron aboard the aircraft carrier HMS Formidable and on the 24th and 29th of that month led a section of Corsair fighters in attacks against heavy anti-aircraft positions surrounding Alten Fjord, Norway, where the German battleship, Tirpitz, lay at anchor. Returning from the raid on the 29th with most of his aircraft's rudder shot away and the aircraft badly damaged, he had to circle the Formidable for 45 minutes before making a successful landing. For these actions Lieutenant Gray was Mentioned in Despatches for undaunted courage, skill and determination.
HMS Formidable was detached from the Home Fleet and assigned to the British Pacific Fleet. Her aircraft took part in many strikes against the enemy in the Far East. By the middle of July 1945, the Japanese were receiving tremendous punishment in their homeland. On July 18th Gray led a flight of Corsairs on an airfield strafing raid. On the 24th and the 28th he was the leader of successful bombings of bases along the Japanese Inland Sea.
Twelve days after his death on August 9, 1945, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) for leadership in the July strikes, and was gazetted with a citation which simply read: "For determination and address in air attacks on targets in Japan." But on the morning of August 9th, as he led his Corsair bomber group away from HMS Formidable, Gray had no knowledge of the recommendation for the award. Nor did he know that just hours after this raid, a second atomic bomb would be dropped on a Japanese city (Nagasaki), and that the war would be over five days later.
As the pilots approached the naval base at Onagawa Bay, they could see five Japanese warships at anchor. The combined anti-aircraft barrage from the ships and shore batteries steadily increased in intensity and accuracy. Selecting a ship, the Amakusa, Gray set his Corsair into a bombing attack. Gray's heavily damaged plane could not save him and it plunged into the waters of the Bay.
Lieutenant Gray was killed on August 9th, 1945, the last Canadian killed in action in World War 11. He was awarded the Victoria Cross (V.C.), the only V.C. awarded to a pilot in the Royal Canadian Navy during World War II. The citation, published in the London Gazette of November 13, 1945, posthumously awarding him the highest decoration for gallantry, describes the incident and pays tribute to his steadfast conduct to the end. It reads: "The King has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the late Lieutenant Robert Hampton Gray, D.S.C., RCNVR, for great valor in leading an attack on a Japanese destroyer in Onagawa Wan on the 9th of August, 1945. In the face of fire from the shore batteries and a heavy concentration of fire from five warships, Lieutenant Gray pressed home his attack, flying low to ensure success and, although he was wounded and his aircraft in flames, he obtained at least one direct hit, sinking the destroyer. Lieutenant Gray has consistently shown a brilliant fighting spirit and most inspiring leadership."
He was 28 years old at the time of his death. A bronze bust of him stands in Ottawa’s ‘Sappers’ Bridge’ over the Rideau Canal, across the street from the Laurier Hotel. The pantheon of great Canadian Heroes known as Valliants. Next to him is the bust of another V.C. winner, Andrew Mynarski of the RCAF. The Valiants Memorial which stands near Ottawa’s Parliament Hill, is a collection of nine busts and a large bronze inscription that reads: “No day will ever erase you from the memory of time.” Robert Gray was the last Commonwealth Victoria Cross recipient.
Robert Hampton Gray was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: April 8, 1916
Birth Place: Woodville, Ontario
Death Date: April 11, 2010
Year Inducted: 1974
Awards: C.M., C.D.*, D.Mil.Sc. (Hon), LL.D. (Hon), The McKee Trophy, The Massey Medal, The Johan Mangku Negara (Malaysia), The Polar Medal (American Polar Society), FCASI, FRIN, FEC, FAINA, FRCGS
"His superlative accomplishments in the field of navigation, and more especially his contributions relating to the north polar regions have been of outstanding benefit to Canadian aviation," - Induction citation, 1974
Keith Rogers Greenaway, C.M., C.D.*, D.Mil.Sc., (Hon), was born on a farm near Woodville, Ontario, on April 8, 1916. He was educated in Toronto and joined the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in May, 1940. After graduating as a wireless operator in 1940, he served as an instructor for two years until he transferred to the navigator-wireless operator branch of the RCAF. On completion of his navigation training, he was sent first to No. 8 Air Observer School at Ancienne Lorette, Quebec, and then to the Central Navigation School at Rivers, Manitoba, as a staff instructor. In 1944 he was promoted to Flying Officer.
For the next two years Greenaway worked with the United States Navy (USN) and the United States Air Force (USAF) participating in experimental pressure pattern flights over the North Atlantic, and carrying out experimental flights over the polar regions testing a low frequency navigation system, using bases in Edmonton, Alberta, and Fairbanks, Alaska. In the spring of 1946, Greenaway, now a Flight Lieutenant, was one of the navigators aboard a B-29 Superfortress, the first U.S. military aircraft to fly over the North Geographic Pole.
Greenaway is an internationally recognized authority on aerial navigation, with particular reference to polar flying. In 1947, in association with Mr. J.W. Cox, a Defence Research Board scientist, he developed the RCAF's Twilight Computer, a navigation aid for use in extreme northern latitudes. The computer, perfected in 1952, was adopted by the RCAF and Royal Air Force for use in northern flying.
Late in 1948, Greenaway was seconded to the Defence Research Board, Ottawa, to work on high latitude navigation problems, serving in this capacity until 1954. During this period, he prepared numerous reports on polar navigation and continued to carry out experimental flights in the arctic regions, extending to the North Geographic Pole.
In 1956, after serving for two years with the USAF, Greenaway was promoted to Wing Commander and transferred to RCAF Headquarters, Ottawa, for duty in the Directorate of Plans and Programs. During August 1958, he was loaned to the USN to assist in navigating a USN ZPG-2 Airship on its polar flight to Tee Island T3, which he had discovered in April 1947, and now was found to have shifted its geographic location. He was transferred to Winnipeg, Manitoba, in August 1959, to take the post of Officer Commanding the RCAF Central Navigation School. While at the school he developed the Canadian Forces Aerospace Systems Course and perfected the Earth Convergency Grid Technique for measuring direction in the polar regions. In August 1963, Group Captain Greenaway was appointed Commanding Officer of RCAF Station Clinton, Ontario.
From 1967 to 1970, Greenaway was again seconded to the Department of External Affairs and appointed Air Advisor to the Chief of Air Staff of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). In this position, Brigadier General Greenaway advised on organization, management, and training for the RMAF.
Greenaway retired from the Canadian Forces as a General in March of 1971. During his military career, he flew as crew member on 26 aircraft types, accumulating some 8,000 hours of which nearly one third were north of the Arctic Circle. Following retirement, he assisted the Advisory Committee on Northern Development.
Greenaway was an accomplished author. A partial list of his books include: The Arctic—Choices for Peace and Security (1989); From MacKenzie King to Pierre Trudeau - 1945 - 1985 (1989); The Arctic Environment and Canada's International Relations (1991); and No Day Long Enough—Canadian Science in WW II (1997).
He has received numerous awards, including the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy in 1952 in recognition of his development of new methods of aerial navigation in the Arctic regions. He was awarded the Massey Medal in 1960 for outstanding personal achievement and contributions to the development of Canada. In 1952 he was awarded the Canadian Decoration (C.D.) and in 1962 received the Clasp to this decoration. In July of 1970 he was awarded the Johan Mangku Negara by the Malaysian Government. In 1976 he was made a Member of the Order of Canada (C.M.), and in 1978 he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Military Science from the Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario.
Greenaway was a Fellow of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI), the Royal Institute of Navigation, the Explorers Club and the Arctic Institute of North America. In 1996 he was made a member of the College of Fellows of the Royal Canadian Geographic Society. In 1984 Greenaway was elected Chairman of the Board of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame.
On October 5th 2000 Keith Greenaway was honoured by the American Polar Society who presented him with their ‘Polar Medal’ and made him an Honourary Member of the Society. His citation reads: “In recognition of his contribution to Polar Science and Exploration”. In 2004 he was honoured by Carleton University with an Doctor of Laws Degree, honoris causa. He died April 11, 2010 at Ottawa, Ontario.
Keith Rogers Greenaway was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1974 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.
Birthdate: January 5, 1922
Birth Place: Montreal, Quebec
Year Inducted: 1990
Awards: C.D., FCASI, the McKee Trophy
"During his long and distinguished career, his dedication to research and experimental flying had improved the future of Canadian aviation." - Induction citation, 1990
Seth Walter Grossmith, C.D., B.Eng., was born on January 5, 1922, in Montreal, Quebec, where he received his education. At the age of 18, he joined the RCAF. He received his wings and then performed instructional duties until 1942. He spent a year as Flight Examination Officer, then proceeded overseas until 1945. He instructed at Instrument Flying School until 1946, then was released to further his education by attending the refresher course for veterans at Sir George Williams University. He received a Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) from McGill University in 1951. He then participated in a technical training course at Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, Ontario, and worked for them as a design engineer on transformers, motors and generators before re-enlisting for military service.
While with the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Grossmith completed the Empire Test Pilot's Course in 1954 at Farnborough, England, where emphasis was placed on flight evaluation techniques of new aircraft and preparation of flight and technical reports. He also conducted experimental flying on the English Electric Canberra and Hawker Hunter aircraft programs. His career with the RCN included work with the United States Navy (USN) development test centre, and a tour of duty with a USN Helicopter Anti-submarine Warfare Squadron. His training with the U.S. forces included nuclear weapons safety and delivery systems.
Grossmith served as Executive Officer of RCN Squadron VX-10 with a staff of 75 officers and men whose tasks ranged from operational research to proposing operational doctrines for front line use. The squadron won two safety awards and was officially commended by the Board of the Royal Canadian Navy and the United States Chief of Naval Operations. He also did a tour with the USN HSS-2 Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron No. 10 and was Naval Air Technical Liaison Officer with United Aircraft of Canada Limited for helicopter system development CHSS-2 program. He then became a test pilot for United Aircraft which later became known as United Air Lines following several mergers with other airlines.
From 1967 to 1970 he was a test pilot with Canadair Ltd. on the CF/NF 5 and the Canadair CL-215 water bomber, planning flight test programs, and safety and emergency procedures.
In 1970 he joined the Department of Transport, Airworthiness Project Group, as a test pilot, and was involved in certification programs in Canada, U.S.A. and Europe on more than 25 fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as glider certification programs in Poland and Finland.
In 1972 he was seconded to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centre in California, as research pilot on the Augmentor Wing Jet Research Aircraft. Here, he and R.H. Fowler (Hall of Fame 1980) tested the de Havilland Canada (DHC) Buffalo fitted with the augmentor wing and found it greatly enhanced the short take-off and landing (STOL) performance. Grossmith also served on the Advanced STOL Project. Much of the research was concerned with handling qualities and evaluation of airworthiness certification criteria pertinent to propulsive-lift STOL aircraft. Grossmith also participated in studies using the Lockheed C-141 Transport High Altitude Infra-Red Observatory. He also took part in Zero 'G' studies using the LearJet 23.
From 1981 to 1983 he served with the Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce engaged in the planning, development and implementation of policies to promote the growth of Canada's aerospace industry. As test pilot for DHC he worked on and demonstrated the Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft at RCAF Station Mountain View, Ontario.
In 1983 Grossmith became Project Leader, Design, for the Airworthiness Manual Project at Transport Canada, where he was in charge of formulating Canadian Aeronautics Code Chapters 527 and 529, Normal and Transport Category Rotorcraft. He was the air worthiness representative to the working group on Aircraft Operating Regulations and Commercial Operations and also participated as flight specialist for briefings on the Lockheed Hercules C-130 PL at USAF Systems Command. Grossmith retired in 1986.
Since earning his wings in 1940, Grossmith flew in excess of 12,400 hours in 170 types of aircraft and had many of his research papers published. In 1987 he was awarded the Trans-Canada (McKee) Trophy for "outstanding achievement in the field of air operations in recognition of his significant contribution to aeronautics in Canada as an Engineering Test Pilot." In 1988 he was made a Fellow of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute.
Seth Walter Grossmith was inducted as a Member of Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame in 1990 at a ceremony held in Edmonton, Alberta.